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Huberman Lab podcast

Huberman Lab

The Huberman Lab Podcast discusses neuroscience: how our brain and its connections with the organs of our body controls our perceptions, our behaviors, and our health. We also discuss existing and emerging tools for measuring and changing how our nervous system works. Dr. Andrew Huberman is a tenured Professor of Neurobiology and Ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine. His laboratory studies neural regeneration, neuroplasticity, and brain states such as stress, focus, fear, and optimal performance. For more than 20 years, Dr. Huberman has consistently published original research findings and review articles in top-level peer-reviewed journals, including Nature, Science, Cell, Neuron, and Current Biology. He is a regular member of several National Institutes of Health review panels and a Fellow of the McKnight Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts. Dr. Huberman regularly consults for technology development companies, professional athletic organizations, and various units of U.S. and Canadian Special Operations.

The Huberman Lab Podcast discusses neuroscience: how our brain and its connections with the organs of our body controls our perceptions, our behaviors, and our health. We also discuss existing and emerging tools for measuring and changing how our nervous system works. Dr. Andrew Huberman is a tenured Professor of Neurobiology and Ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine. His laboratory studies neural regeneration, neuroplasticity, and brain states such as stress, focus, fear, and optimal performance. For more than 20 years, Dr. Huberman has consistently published original research findings and review articles in top-level peer-reviewed journals, including Nature, Science, Cell, Neuron, and Current Biology. He is a regular member of several National Institutes of Health review panels and a Fellow of the McKnight Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts. Dr. Huberman regularly consults for technology development companies, professional athletic organizations, and various units of U.S. and Canadian Special Operations.

 

#43

Nutrients For Brain Health & Performance | Episode 42

This episode I describe science-supported nutrients for brain and performance (cognition) and for nervous system health generally. I describe 10 tools for this purpose, including specific amounts and sources for Omega-3 fatty acids which make up the "structural fat" of neurons (nerve cells) and allow them to function across our lifespan. I also review data on creatine, phosphatidylserine, anthocyanins, choline, glutamine and how they each impact brain function in healthy people seeking to reinforce and improve their cognition and in those combatting cognitive decline. I describe both food-based and supplement-based sources for these compounds, and their effective dose ranges based on peer-reviewed literature. Then I review the 3 factors: gut-brain signaling, perceived taste, and learned associations that combine with the metabolic and blood-sugar-elevating effects of food to determine what foods we seek and prefer. Amazingly, it's not just about what tastes good to us. Next, I explore how we can leverage the neural circuits of learned food preference toward seeking and enjoying the right foods for brain health and performance. I also review new data on non-caloric sweeteners and why consuming them with glucose-elevating foods can be detrimental,  in some cases rapidly leading to insulin dysregulation. This episode covers more than 10 actionable tools for those seeking to improve and/or maintain brain function, and it explains modern neuroscience underlying of our sense of taste, our food seeking preferences and brain metabolism.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - <a href= "https://www.roka.com">https://www.roka.com</a> -- code: "huberman" ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>  ---Headspace - <a href= "https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer">https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer</a>    RETHINK EDUCATION: The Biology of Learning Featuring Dr. Andrew Huberman: ---<a href= "https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M">https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M</a>    Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>    Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>    Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>    Links: ---Review on Anthocyanins & Cognition - <a href= "https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/23/4255">https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/23/4255</a>  ---Review on Creatine & Brain Health Studies - <a href= "https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/586">https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/586</a>  ---Review on "Rethinking Food Reward" - <a href= "http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011643"> www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011643</a>    Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Food & Brain Function Introduction ---00:02:08 Summary: Critical Aspects of Time Restricted Feeding/Fasting ---00:04:19 Sponsors: ROKA, Athletic Greens, Headspace ---00:08:24 Neuroplasticity Super Protocol (Zero-Cost Tools) Online ---00:09:22 Eating to Enhance Brain Function & Foundational Aspects of Brain Health  ---00:13:00 Eating Fats for Brain Health, EFAs Phospholipids (Tool 1: 1-3g EPA Omega-3/day)  ---00:20:35 Phosphatidylserine (Tool 2: 300mg/day) ---00:22:15 Choline, Egg Yolks (Tool 3: 1-2g/day Threshold) ---00:28:26 Hydration & Electrolytes (Tool 4) ---00:29:50 Liquid Fish Oil/Capsules (2-3g EPA per day; 300mg Alpha GPC 2-4X/week) ---00:32:22 Creatine for Cognition (Tool 5: 5g/day)  ---00:36:28 Anthocyanins, Dark Skin Berries (Tool 6-10mg/day (Extract), 1-2 cups Berries)  ---00:41:19 L-Glutamine (Tool: 1-10g/day) & Offsetting Apnea & Inflammation ---00:49:23 Neural Basis of Food Preference, Yum, Yuck, Meh; Taste, Guts, & Beliefs ---00:55:25 Taste is 100% In your Head ---00:59:50 Gut Neurons Controlling Food Preference: Neuropod Cells; (Tool 7: Fermented Foods)  ---01:06:14 Capsule Probiotics, Brain Fog  ---01:07:16 Learning to Like Specific Tastes: Sweetness & Brain Metabolism ---01:12:11 Hard-Wiring & Soft-Wiring ---01:13:25 Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners: Safe or Harmful Depends on (Glucose) Context ---01:18:15 Non-Caloric Sweetener & Insulin; (Tool 8: Don’t Have w/Glucose Elevating Foods) ---01:22:17 Beliefs & Thoughts; The Insula; (Tool 9: Pairing-Based Reshaping Food Preferences)  ---01:30:42 Liking Neuro-Healthy Foods & Bettering Brain Metabolism (Tool 10); Food Wars ---01:36:05 Food Reward & Diabetes, Obesity; Important Review Article (See Caption) ---01:38:28 Synthesis, Zero-Cost Support, Future Topic Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

18 Oct 2021

1 HR 41 MINS

1:41:19

18 Oct 2021


#42

Effects of Fasting & Time Restricted Eating on Fat Loss & Health | Episode 41

This episode I discuss the science and practice of fasting also called time-restricted feeding. I review the data on how limiting food intake to specific portions of every 24-hour cycle (or fasting longer) impacts weight loss, fat loss specifically, liver health, mental focus, muscle, longevity and more. I explain how "fasted" is contextual, and relates to blood glucose levels and their downstream effects, and how the depth of fasting can be adjusted with behaviors such as different types of exercise, or with glucose disposal agents. I also discuss the optimal fasting protocol: and both the absolute (non-negotiable) and variable (contextual) features of a fasting/time-restricted-feeding protocol that will allow you to get the most benefits. I also discuss what does and does not break a fast, the effects of fasting on hormones like testosterone and cortisol and on fertility. I also review how different feeding windows of 8 or 10 or 4 hours differentially impact the effects of fasting, and why the classic 8 hour feeding window came to be but also might be ideal. I discuss mechanisms and offer tools to discern the optimal fasting duration and timing for you.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - <a href= "https://www.roka.com">https://www.roka.com</a> -- code: "huberman" ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Helix Sleep - <a href= "https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman">https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman</a>    RETHINK EDUCATION: The Biology of Learning Featuring Dr. Andrew Huberman ---<a href= "https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M">https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>    Links: ---Comprehensive Review On Fasting In Humans: <a href= "https://bit.ly/3BwIyd7">https://bit.ly/3BwIyd7</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction, Blood Glucose & Mortality, Mice Vs. Humans ---00:06:02 Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Helix ---00:09:42 Neuroplasticity Protocols & Online Lecture <a href= "https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M">https://youtu.be/Oo7hQapFe3M</a>  ---00:11:20 Feeding, Fasting, Performance ---00:13:50 Calories-In, Calories-Out (CICO); Perfect Diets ---00:19:48 Feeding-Induced Health Conditions  ---00:25:33 Time Restricted Eating: When We Eat Is Vital ---00:29:45 The Eight Hour Feeding Window  ---00:31:26 Feeding Deep Into the Night Is Bad (In Humans) ---00:36:33 Liver Health ---00:39:45 Time Restricted Feeding Protocol: Rules ---00:41:35 When to Start & Stop Eating ---00:45:38 Gastric Clearance, Linking Fasting to Sleep ---00:52:35 Effects of Specific Categories of Food ---00:55:40 Precision In Fasting: Protocol Build ---00:59:30 4-6 Hour Feeding Windows ---01:03:08 Protein Consumption & Timing for Muscle ---01:08:13 How to Shift Your Eating Window ---01:13:20 Glucose Clearing, Exercise & Compounds ---01:22:37 Blood Glucose: Monitoring, mTOR & Related Pathways ---01:27:40 Gut Health: Fasting, Clock Genes and Microbiota ---01:29:15 Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver  ---01:32:00 Effects of Fasting on Hormones: Testosterone, Cortisol ---01:38:40 Fertility ---01:41:50 8-Hour Feeding Window: Weight Loss Without Calorie Counting ---01:43:20 Eating Every-Other-Day  ---01:45:29 Adherence ---01:47:15 Mental Focus & Clarity ---01:49:12 Enhancing Weight Loss from Body Fat: Hepatic Lipase ---01:53:15 What Breaks a Fast? Rules & Context ---01:58:50 Artificial Sweeteners, Plant-Based Sweeteners ---02:01:42 Glucose Clearing II, Cinnamon, Acidity, Salt ---02:06:42 My Circadian Clock, Zero-App  ---02:08:20 Odd (But Common) Questions ---02:09:23 Effects of Sauna & Dehydration on Blood Glucose ---02:11:12 The Ideal Fasting Protocol  ---02:24:00 More Resources, Ways to Support Us, Supplements Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

11 Oct 2021

2 HR 26 MINS

2:26:07

11 Oct 2021


#41

Dr. Craig Heller: Using Temperature To Optimize Performance, Brain & Body Health| Episode 40

This episode I am joined by Dr. Craig Heller, Professor of Biology at Stanford University and world expert on the science of temperature regulation. We discuss how the body and brain maintain temperature under different conditions and how most everyone uses the wrong approach to cool off or heat up. Dr. Heller teaches us the best ways and in doing so, explains how to offset hyperthermia and hypothermia. He also explains how we can use the precise timing and location of cooling on our body to greatly enhance endurance and weight training performance. He describes how cooling technology discovered and engineered in his laboratory has led to a tripling of anaerobic (weight training) performance and allowed endurance athletes to run further and faster, as well as to eliminate delayed onset muscle soreness. Dr. Heller explains how heat impairs muscular and mental performance, and how to cool the brain to reduce inflammation and to enhance sleep and cognition. We discuss how anyone can apply these principles for themselves, even their dogs! Our conversation includes both many practical tools and mechanistic science.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - <a href= "https://www.roka.com">https://www.roka.com</a> -- code "huberman" ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>   Support Research in Huberman Lab at Stanford: ---<a href= "https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving">https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>    Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a>  ---Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>    Links: ---Dr. Heller's Website - <a href= "https://profiles.stanford.edu/h-craig-heller">https://profiles.stanford.edu/h-craig-heller</a> ---CoolMitt Technology - <a href= "https://www.coolmitt.com">https://www.coolmitt.com</a>  --- --- Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Craig Heller, Physiology & Performance ---00:02:00 Sponsors: Roka, Inside Tracker, Athletic Greens ---00:06:45 Cold Showers, Ice Baths, Cryotherapy ---00:10:45 Boundary Layers  ---00:11:55 Cooling Before Aerobic Activity to Enhance Performance ---00:14:45 Anaerobic Activity Locally Increases Muscle Heat ---00:16:45 Temperature Gates Our Energy Use  ---00:19:00 Local Versus Systemic Fatigue: Heat Is Why We Fail ---00:22:10 Cooling Off: Most Methods are Counterproductive ---00:26:43 Exercise-Induced Brain Fog ---00:27:45 Hyperthermia ---00:31:50 Best Body Sites for Cooling: Palms, Foot Pads, Upper Face  ---00:38:00 Cooling Your Brain via The Upper Face; Concussion ---00:41:25 Extraordinary (Tripling!) Performance by Cooling the Palms ---00:45:35 Enhancing Recovery, Eliminating Soreness w/Intra-workout Cooling ---00:50:00 Multiple Sclerosis: Heat Sensitivity & Amelioration with Cooling ---00:51:00 Enhancing Endurance with Proper Cooling ---00:53:00 Cool Mitt, Ice-Cold Is Too Cold, 3 Minutes Cooling ---00:58:20 How You Can Use Palmer Cooling to Enhance Performance ---01:01:15 Radiation, Convection, Heat-Transfer, Role of Surface Area ---01:04:40 Hypothermia Story, Ideal Re-Heating Strategy ---01:11:40 Paw-lmer Cooling for Dog Health & Performance ---01:12:45 Warming Up, & Varying Temperature Around the Body ---01:17:35 Cooling-Enhanced Performance Is Permanent ---01:19:55 Anabolic Steroids versus Palmer Cooling ---01:24:00 Female Athletic Performance  ---01:25:18 Shivering & Cold, Metabolism ---01:26:55 Studies of Bears & Hibernation, Brown Fat ---01:31:10 Brown Fat Distribution & Activation In Humans ---01:34:18 Brain Freeze, Ice Headache: Blood Pressure, Headache ---01:37:50 Fidgeters, Non-Exercise Induced Thermogenesis ---01:39:44 How Pre-Workout Drinks, & Caffeine May Inhibit Performance ---01:43:42 Sleep, Cold, Warm Baths, Screens, & Socks ---01:48:44 Synthesis ---01:49:30 Supporting the Podcast & Scientific Research    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

04 Oct 2021

1 HR 51 MINS

1:51:36

04 Oct 2021


#40

Controlling Your Dopamine For Motivation, Focus & Satisfaction | Episode 39

This episode serves as a sort of “Dopamine Masterclass”. I discuss the immensely powerful chemical that we all make in our brain and body: dopamine. I describe what it does and the neural circuits involved. I explain dopamine peaks and baselines, and the cell biology of dopamine depletion. I include 14 tools for how to control your dopamine release for sake of motivation, focus, avoiding and combating addiction and depression, and I explain why dopamine stacking with chemicals and behaviors inevitably leads to states of underwhelm and poor performance. I explain how to achieve sustained increases in baseline dopamine, compounds that injure and protect dopamine neurons including caffeine from specific sources. I describe non-prescription supplements for increasing dopamine—both their benefits and risks—and synergy of pro-dopamine supplements with those that increase acetylcholine.    Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - <a href= "https://www.roka.com">https://www.roka.com</a> -- code "huberman" ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a>  ---Headspace - <a href= "https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer">https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer</a>    Logitech Event - Rethink Education: The Biology of Learning ---Thursday, Sept. 30 at 12pm PT / 3pm ET ---Sign up here: <a href= "https://info.logitech.com/ReThink-Education.html">https://info.logitech.com/ReThink-Education.html</a>    Support Research in Huberman Lab at Stanford: ---<a href= "https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving">https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>    Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>    Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a>  ---Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>    Links: ---Review on Dopamine: <a href= "https://www.nature.com/articles/s41583-021-00455-7">https://www.nature.com/articles/s41583-021-00455-7</a> ---Cold Exposure & Dopamine: <a href= "https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs004210050065">https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs004210050065</a>    Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction & Tool 1 to Induce Lasting Dopamine ---00:04:48 Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Headspace ---00:09:10 Upcoming (Zero-Cost) Neuroplasticity Seminar for Educators ---00:09:58 What Dopamine (Really) Does ---00:15:30 Two Main Neural Circuits for Dopamine  ---00:18:14 How Dopamine Is Released: Locally and Broadly ---00:22:03 Fast and Slow Effects of Dopamine ---00:25:03 Dopamine Neurons Co-Release Glutamate ---00:28:00 Your Dopamine History Really Matters  ---00:30:30 Parkinson’s & Drugs That Kill Dopamine Neurons. My Dopamine Experience  ---00:36:58 Tool 3 Controlling Dopamine Peaks & Baselines ---00:40:06 Chocolate, Sex (Pursuit & Behavior), Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine, Exercise ---00:46:46 Tool 4 Caffeine Increases Dopamine Receptors ---00:49:54 Pursuit, Excitement & Your “Dopamine Setpoint” ---00:56:46 Your Pleasure-Pain Balance & Defining “Pain” ---01:00:00 Addiction, Dopamine Depletion, & Replenishing Dopamine ---01:07:50 Tool 5 Ensure Your Best (Healthy) Dopamine Release ---01:15:28 Smart Phones: How They Alter Our Dopamine Circuits ---01:19:45 Stimulants & Spiking Dopamine: Counterproductive for Work, Exercise & Attention ---01:22:20 Caffeine Sources Matter: Yerba Mate & Dopamine Neuron Protection ---01:24:20 Caffeine & Neurotoxicity of MDMA ---01:26:15 Amphetamine, Cocaine & Detrimental Rewiring of Dopamine Circuits ---01:27:57 Ritalin, Adderall, (Ar)Modafinil: ADHD versus non-Prescription Uses ---01:28:45 Tool 6 Stimulating Long-Lasting Increases in Baseline Dopamine  ---01:37:55 Tool 7 Tuning Your Dopamine for Ongoing Motivation ---01:47:40 Tool 8 Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Dopamine  ---01:53:09 Validation of Your Pre-Existing Beliefs Increases Dopamine ---01:53:50 Tool 9 Quitting Sugar & Highly Palatable Foods: 48 Hours ---01:55:36 Pornography ---01:56:50 Wellbutrin & Depression & Anxiety ---01:58:30 Tool 10 Mucuna Pruriens, Prolactin, Sperm, Crash Warning ---02:01:45 Tool 11 L-Tyrosine: Dosages, Duration of Effects & Specificity ---02:05:20 Tool 12 Avoiding Melatonin Supplementation, & Avoiding Light 10pm-4am ---02:07:00 Tool 13 Phenylethylamine (with Alpha-GPC) For Dopamine Focus/Energy ---02:08:20 Tool 14 Huperzine A ---02:10:02 Social Connections, Oxytocin & Dopamine Release ---02:12:20 Direct & Indirect Effects: e.g., Maca; Synthesis & Application ---02:14:22 Zero-Cost & Other Ways To Support Podcast & Research   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

27 Sep 2021

2 HR 16 MINS

2:16:32

27 Sep 2021


#39

Dr. Matthew Johnson: Psychedelics for Treating Mental Disorders | Episode 38

This episode I discuss medical research on psychedelic compounds with Dr. Matthew Johnson, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. We discuss the biology and medical clinical-trial uses of psilocybin, MDMA, ayahuasca, DMT, and LSD. Dr. Johnson teaches us what the clinical trials in his lab are revealing about the potential these compounds hold for the treatment of depression, addiction, trauma, eating disorders, ADHD, and other disorders of the mind. Dr. Johnson describes a typical psychedelic experiment in his laboratory, start to finish, including the conditions for optimal clinical outcomes. And he explains some of the potential hazards and common misconceptions and pitfalls related to psychedelic medicine. Dr. Johnson explains flashbacks, the heightened risks of certain people and age groups using psychedelics and the ever evolving legal and pharmaceutical industry landscape surrounding psychedelics. Dr. Johnson also explains how the scientific study of psychedelics is likely to set the trajectory of psychiatric medicine in the years to come. Dr. Johnson is among a small handful of researchers who have pioneered the clinical study of these powerful compounds. He has unprecedented insight into how they can be woven into other psychiatric treatments, changing ones sense of self and of reality.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "http://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">http://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a> ---Belcampo - <a href= "http://www.belcampo.com/huberman">http://www.belcampo.com/huberman</a> ---InsideTracker - <a href= "http://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">http://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a>   Dr. Matthew Johnson Social Media:  ---Twitter: <a href= "https://twitter.com/drug_researcher">https://twitter.com/drug_researcher</a>  ---Instagram: <a href= "https://instagram.com/drug_researcher">https://instagram.com/drug_researcher</a>    Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>    Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>    Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a>  ---Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>    Links: ---Dr. Johnson’s Website at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine - <a href= "https://hopkinspsychedelic.org/johnson">https://hopkinspsychedelic.org/johnson</a> ---Chris Letheby’s forthcoming book - <a href= "https://amzn.to/3nMTaAs">https://amzn.to/3nMTaAs</a>     Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Matthew Johnson ---00:02:10 Supporting Sponsors ---00:06:40 ‘Psychedelics’ Defined ---00:14:09 Hallucinations, Synesthesia, Altered Space-Time Perception ---00:19:56 Serotonin & Dopamine  ---00:23:50 Ketamine & Glutamate  ---00:28:00 An Example Psychedelic Experiment ---00:37:30 ‘Letting Go’ with Psychedelics ---00:44:10 Our Mind’s Eye ---00:48:00 Redefining Your Sense of Self  ---00:58:56 Exporting Psychedelic Learnings to Daily Life ---01:04:36 Flashbacks ---01:12:10 Ayahuasca, & ASMR, Kundalini Breathing ---01:15:54 MDMA, DMT ---01:26:00 Dangers of Psychedelics, Bad Trips, Long-Lasting Psychosis ---01:38:15 Micro-Dosing ---01:56:45 Risks for Kids, Adolescents & Teenagers; Future Clinical Trials ---02:03:40 Legal Status: Decriminalization vs. Legalization vs. Regulation ---02:18:35 Psychedelics for Treating Concussion & Traumatic Brain Injury  ---02:27:45 Shifting Trends in Psychedelic Research, Academic Culture ---02:44:23 Participating in a Clinical Trial, Online Survey Studies, Breathwork  ---02:50:38 Conclusions, Subscribing & Supporting the HLP, Supplements --- --- Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com ... Read more

20 Sep 2021

2 HR 52 MINS

2:52:05

20 Sep 2021


#38

ADHD & How Anyone Can Improve Their Focus | Episode 37

In this episode, I discuss ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): what it is, the common myths, and the biology and psychology of ADHD. I discuss both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments for ADHD, and brain-machine interface tools. I also discuss behavioral training protocols that can improve focus in people with ADHD and those without ADHD, and for people of different ages. I discuss the role of dopamine in coordinating 'default-mode' and 'task-related' neural networks, attentional "blinks" (lapses of attention) and how to overcome them, and the role of actual blinks in time perception and attention. Finally, I review some of the prescription and over-the-counter compounds for increasing focus such as Adderall, Ritalin, Modafinil and Armodafinil, the racetams, Alpha-GPC and phosphatidylserine and the role of diet for managing ADHD (and the controversies of diet for ADHD). The role of cell phones/technology in ADHD and ADHD-like challenges with focus are also discussed. Throughout, both basic science and clinical scenarios, as well as applicable tools and resources are covered. Thank you to our sponsors: ---Roka - <a href= "https://www.roka.com">https://www.roka.com</a> -- code "huberman" ---Belcampo - <a href= "https://www.belcampo.com/huberman">https://www.belcampo.com/huberman</a> ---Helix Sleep - <a href= "https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman">https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Support Research in the Huberman Lab at Stanford: ---<a href= "https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving">https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Email Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Links: ---Review of Compounds for ADHD, Smart Drugs & Focus - <a id= "m_4844649432432223285LPlnk" href= "https://www.fbscience.com/Landmark/articles/10.52586/4948" target= "_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl= "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.fbscience.com/Landmark/articles/10.52586/4948&source=gmail&ust=1631596464962000&usg=AFQjCNEi4q0yroZXTalhZNUA-t0jfWcr0g"> https://www.fbscience.com/Landmark/articles/10.52586/4948</a> ---Review of Atypical Compounds for ADHD - <a id= "m_4844649432432223285LPlnk" href= "https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/1320423/" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl= "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/1320423/&source=gmail&ust=1631596464962000&usg=AFQjCNHFAObqJwDmKSeRYw5bsCHt4yzhqw"> https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/1320423/</a> ---Study of Focus Protocol In ADHD & Non-ADHD Children - <a id= "m_4844649432432223285LPlnk" href= "https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/13/4780" target="_blank" rel= "noopener" data-saferedirecturl= "https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/13/4780&source=gmail&ust=1631596464962000&usg=AFQjCNHE9OJSFaCMZygAhENpAFxFy11-qQ"> https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/13/4780</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction & Note About Diagnosis ---00:03:27 Sponsors  ---00:07:56 ADHD vs. ADD: Genetics, IQ, Rates in Kids & Adults ---00:13:00 Attention & Focus, Impulse Control ---00:14:57 Hyper-focus  ---00:16:45 Time Perception ---00:18:25 The Pile System ---00:20:00 Working Memory ---00:24:10 Hyper-Focus & Dopamine  ---00:26:40 Neural Circuits In ADHD: Default Mode Network & Task-Related Networks  ---00:32:57 Low Dopamine in ADHD & Stimulant Use & Abuse ---00:37:10 Sugar, Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil & Armodafinil  ---00:47:00 Non-Prescribed Adderall, Caffeine, Nicotine ---00:49:18 How Stimulants “Teach” the Brains of ADHD Children to Focus ---00:52:00 When To Medicate: A Highly Informed (Anecdotal) Case Study ---00:56:35 Elimination Diets & Allergies In ADHD ---01:04:46 Omega-3 Fatty Acids: EPAs & DHAs  ---01:07:00 Modulation vs Mediation of Biological Processes ---01:10:50 Attentional Blinks  ---01:16:56 Open Monitoring & 17minute Focus Enhancement  ---01:22:50 Blinking, Dopamine & Time Perception; & Focus Training  ---01:30:10 Reverberatory Neural & Physical Activity ---01:33:40 Adderall, Ritalin & Blink Frequency ---01:35:00 Cannabis  ---01:37:30 Interoceptive Awareness  ---01:41:15 Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil, Armodafinil; Smart Drugs & Caffeine: Dangers ---01:48:05 DHA Fatty Acids, Phosphatidylserine ---0:1:50:54 Ginko Biloba  ---01:51:45 Modafinil & Armodafanil: Dopamine Action & Orexin ---01:56:19 Acetylcholine: Circuits Underlying Focus; Alpha-GPC ---01:59:04 L-Tyrosine, (PEA) Phenylethylamine  ---02:01:23 Racetams, Noopept  ---02:05:15 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Combining Technology & Pharmacology  ---02:09:14 Smart Phones & ADHD & Sub-Clinical Focus Issues In Adults & Kids ---02:14:30 Synthesis/Summary ---02:16:10 Support for Podcast & Research, Supplement Resources   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

13 Sep 2021

2 HR 18 MINS

2:18:01

13 Sep 2021


#37

Healthy Eating & Eating Disorders - Anorexia, Bulimia, Binging | Episode 36

In this episode, I discuss what drives hunger and satiety, and the role our brain, stomach, fat and hormones play in regulating hunger and turning off the desire to eat more. I also address how protein is assimilated better early in the day than it is later in the day, and why those using intermittent fasting might want to shift their feeding window to earlier in the day.   Then I delve into the topic of disorders of eating: Anorexia Nervosa, where people starve themselves and Bulimia Nervosa where people binge and purge their food. I discuss some common myths about Anorexia such as the role of media images increasing the rates of anorexia and the myth of the "perfectionist" anorexic. I also review the symptoms, and the brain and chemical systems disrupted in this condition. I explain how anorexics become hyperaware of the fat content of foods and develop reflexive habits of fat-hyperawareness. Then I discuss the most effective treatments ranging from family-based models to those that target the habitual nature of low-fat/calorie food choices. I also discuss new more experimental clinical trials on MDMA, Psilocybin and Ibogaine for Anorexia, and both their promise and risks   I review the latest work on binge eating disorder and brain stimulation, drug treatments and thyroid disruption in Bulimia and why the treatments for Bulimia are so similar to those for ADHD. Finally, I discuss "cheat days," body dysmorphia and the growing list of novel forms of eating disorders start to finish. As always, science and science-based tools are discussed.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---Belcampo - <a href= "https://www.belcampo.com/huberman">https://www.belcampo.com/huberman</a> -- code "huberman" ---Headspace - <a href= "https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer">https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>   Support Research in Huberman Lab at Stanford: ---<a href= "https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving">https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Links: ---Ingesting Protein in the Morning Supports Muscle Maintenance & Growth: ------<a href= "https://bit.ly/3DPlms7">https://bit.ly/3DPlms7</a>  ---Studies Using Virtual Reality to Explore Eating & Hunger & Body Image: ------<a href= "https://bit.ly/3BGaDya">https://bit.ly/3BGaDya</a>  ------<a href= "https://bit.ly/2WWGRq8">https://bit.ly/2WWGRq8</a>    Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction: Fasting, & Defining Healthy Eating ---00:08:55 Morning Protein Is Important  ---00:22:04 Sponsors ---00:26:29 Defining & Diagnosing Eating Disorders ---00:29:00 Anorexia Nervosa (Overview & Myths) ---00:33:44 Bulimia (Overview & Myths) ---00:37:35 Binge Eating Disorders, EDNOS, OSFEDS, Pica ---00:39:44 What is Hunger? What is Satiety? ---00:42:00 Neuronal & Hormonal “Accelerators & Brakes” on Eating ---00:46:17 Fat, Leptin & Fertility & Metabolic Dysfunctions in Obesity ---00:50:30 Why We Overeat ---00:55:30 Homeostasis & Reward Systems/Decisions  ---00:59:58 Anorexia ---01:04:28 The Cholesterol Paradox ---01:06:13 Psychological vs. Biological/Genetic Factors in Anorexia ---01:09:44 Chemical Imbalances, Serotonergic Treatments ---01:12:56 Altered Habits & Rewards in Anorexia: Hyperacuity for Fat Content ---01:18:28 Brain Areas for Reward Based Decision Making vs. Habits ---01:24:06 Habit-Reward Circuits Are Flipped in Anorexics: Reward for Deprivation ---01:28:30 How Do You Break a Habit?  ---01:33:23 Family Based Models, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy ---01:35:39 MDMA, Psilocybin, Clinical Trials, Ibogaine  ---01:40:35 Anabolic vs. Catabolic Exercise, Spontaneous Movements, NEAT ---01:43:23 Distorted Self Image in Anorexia  ---01:47:54 Bulimia & Binge-Eating, “Cheat Days”, Thyroid Hormone ---01:53:05 Inhibitory Control, Impulsivity, Adderall, Wellbutrin ---01:58:00 Direct Brain Stimulation: Nucleus Accumbens ---02:04:28 Anorexia/Reward. vs Bulimia/Binging   ---02:05:45 Healthy Eating Revisited ---02:10:55 Synthesis, Body Dysmorphias ---02:14:15 Support: Podcast, & Research Studies   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

06 Sep 2021

2 HR 16 MINS

2:16:01

06 Sep 2021


#36

Dr. Robert Sapolsky: Science of Stress, Testosterone & Free Will | Episode 35

In this episode, I interview Dr. Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Professor of Biology, Neurology & Neurosurgery at Stanford University. We discuss stress, what defines short-term versus long-term stress, and how stress can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the context. We also discuss stress mitigation and how our sense of control over stress mitigation techniques, including exercise, determine health outcomes. Dr. Sapolsky explains some of the key effects of the hormone testosterone — how it can amplify pre-existing tendencies for aggression or sexual behavior, but that it does not produce those behaviors per se. He also explains how testosterone impacts our social hierarchies, sense of confidence, and willingness to embrace challenges of different kinds. He also explains how our behaviors and perceptions shape testosterone levels. And we discuss estrogen and the powerful role it plays in brain development, health and longevity. Finally, we discuss free will, what it means to have free will, and if we have any free will, including how knowledge alone might allow us to make better decisions for ourselves and society.    Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - <a href= "https://roka.com">https://roka.com</a> - use code "huberman" ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://insidetracker.com/huberman">https://insidetracker.com/huberman</a>  ---Belcampo - <a href= "https://belcampo.com/huberman">https://belcampo.com/huberman</a>    Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>    Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>    Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a>  ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a>   ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a>  ---Join Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>    Links: ---Dr. Sapolsky's most recent book, "Behave: The Biology of Humans At Our Best & Worst": <a href= "https://amzn.to/3yrZ6k7">https://amzn.to/3yrZ6k7</a>  ---Support Research in the Huberman Lab at Stanford on Stress, Sleep & Human Performance: <a href= "https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving">https://hubermanlab.stanford.edu/giving</a>    Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction: Dr. Robert Sapolsky  ---00:02:26 Sponsors: Roka, Inside Tracker, Belcampo  ---00:06:30 Stress: Short & Long-Term, Good & Bad  ---00:09:11 Valence & Amygdala  ---00:11:00 Testosterone: Common Myths vs. Actual Truths  ---00:15:15 Behaviors that Affect Testosterone   ---00:17:20 Mindsets & Contexts that Affect Testosterone ---00:20:28 How Finger Length Ratios Reflect Prenatal Hormone Levels   ---00:22:30 Aggression: Male-Female, Female-Male, & Female-Female  ---00:24:05 Testosterone: The Challenge Hypothesis  ---00:29:20 How Dopamine Impacts Testosterone & Motivation  ---00:32:32 Estrogen: Improves Brain & Longevity BUT TIMING IS KEY  ---00:39:40 Are Testosterone & Sperm Counts in Males Really Dropping?  ---00:42:15 Stress Mitigation & Our Sense of Control  ---00:51:35 How Best to Buffer Stress  ---00:57:04 Power of Perception, Choice & Individual Differences  ---01:00:32 Context-Setting, Prefrontal Cortex & Hierarchy  ---01:11:20 How Dr. Sapolsky Accomplishes Deep Thinking   ---01:13:17 Do We Have Free Will?  ---01:20:50 How to Apply Knowledge & Learning   ---01:23:44 Robert’s New Book: “Determined: The Science of Life Without Free Will”  ---01:28:27 Reflections, Support of Podcast, & Supporting Stress Research    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. ... Read more

30 Aug 2021

1 HR 29 MINS

1:29:38

30 Aug 2021


#35

Understanding & Conquering Depression | Episode 34

This episode, I explain what major depression is at the biological and psychological level and the various treatments that peer-reviewed studies have revealed can help prevent and treat depression. I explain the three major chemical systems that are altered in depression: norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. I discuss genetic predispositions to depression and how stress, thyroid hormone and cortisol play a role in many forms of depression. I also discuss inflammation as a common feature of many depression symptoms. I review 8 specific science-supported protocols for treating and avoiding depression, including EPA fatty acids (which have been shown to rival certain prescription treatments), how exercise protects against depression, studies of creatine, adjusting dopamine balance and more. I also discuss the results of ongoing clinical trials for ketamine and psilocybin for depression, how these compounds work and finally, I review how ketogenic diets can help in certain cases of depression, especially treatment-resistant major depression.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a> ---Belcampo - <a href= "https://www.belcampo.com/huberman">https://www.belcampo.com/huberman</a> -- code "huberman"   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join Newsletter - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Links: ---Review of EPAs for the Treatment of Depression - <a href= "https://bit.ly/2Wl15ti">https://bit.ly/2Wl15ti</a>  ---Review of Creatine for the Treatment of Depression - <a href= "https://www.mdpi.com/520864">https://www.mdpi.com/520864</a>  ---Recent Study on the Clinical Use of Psilocybin for Treatment of Depression - <a href= "https://bit.ly/3sFSGMM">https://bit.ly/3sFSGMM</a>    Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Mood Disorders & Maintaining Mental Health (Protocol 1) ---00:07:10 Sponsors ---00:11:15 Major Depression ---00:18:40 “Anti-Self” Confabulation ---00:21:42 Autonomic (Vegetative) Symptoms of Depression ---00:26:58 Norepinephrine, Dopamine & Serotonin ---00:31:50 SSRIs (Prozac, Zoloft, etc.): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors ---00:37:00 Epinephrine/Motor Functions, Dopamine/Motivation & Craving, Serotonin/Emotions ---00:39:33 Physical & Emotional Pain are Linked: Substance P ---00:41:50 Hormones & Depression: Thyroid & Cortisol  ---00:46:50 Genetic Susceptibility to Depression: Impact of Stress  ---00:50:50 Understanding Biological Mechanism Is Key: Recipes versus Skills ---00:52:50 Tools for Dealing with Depression: Logic & Implementation (Protocol 2) ---00:56:25 Brain Inflammation & Mental State: Cytokines, Prostaglandins, etc. ---00:59:20 Protocol 3: Essential Fatty Acids (Omega-3, EPAs: Eicosapentaenoic Acid)* ---01:02:50 How EPAs Help Offset Depression: Serotonin Synthesis, Kynurenine, Quinolinic Acid ---01:05:25 Protocol 4: How Exercise Offsets Depression  ---01:11:44 Protocol 5: Creatine Monohydrate, Forebrain Function & NMDA receptors* ---01:20:30 Protocol 6*: Ketamine, PCP (*Prescription-Only), & NMDA-Receptor Function ---01:33:08 Protocol 7*: Psychedelics (*In Clinical Trials) for Major Depression: Psilocybin* ---01:47:00 Protocol 8: Ketogenic Diet, GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) ---01:54:50 Summary of Protocols Covered ---02:00:10 Support & Additional Resources   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a> ... Read more

23 Aug 2021

2 HR 01 MINS

2:01:46

23 Aug 2021


#34

Dr. Anna Lembke: Understanding & Treating Addiction | Episode 33

This episode I interview Dr. Anna Lembke, MD, Chief of the Stanford Addiction Medicine Dual Diagnosis Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Lembke is a psychiatrist expert in treating addictions of all kinds: drugs, alcohol, food, sex, video games, gambling, food, medication, etc. Dr. Lembke is also an expert in the opioid crisis, and the author of Dopamine Nation: Finding Balance in the Age of Indulgence (<a href= "https://amzn.to/3AHHGBp" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">https://amzn.to/3AHHGBp</a>). We discuss the biology and psychology of why people become addicted to certain substances and behaviors and the key role that our "dopamine balance" plays in creating addiction. We also discuss the science and practice of how to conquer addictions, why people relapse and how to avoid relapsing. Dr. Lembke also shares her expertise on topics closely related to addiction such as community, shame and lying and she explains why telling the truth—even about the most basic things in daily life, adjusts dopamine levels in our brain. This episode is an important one for anyone struggling with addictions of any kind, for their friends and families and for health care professionals. It is also for anyone who has defeated addiction and is determined to stay clean. Last but not least, it helps explain why all humans do what we do, and how we can all maintain a healthy sense of pleasure seeking in life.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - <a href= "https://www.roka.com">https://www.roka.com</a> -- code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Headspace - <a href= "https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer">https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>    Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>    Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join the Neural Network - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Dr. Anna Lembke Links: ---Website: <a href= "https://bit.ly/3iPtGje">https://bit.ly/3iPtGje</a>   ---Stanford Profile: <a href= "https://stanford.io/3AI9SEu">https://stanford.io/3AI9SEu</a>  ---Dopamine Nation (new book): <a href= "https://amzn.to/3AHHGBp">https://amzn.to/3AHHGBp</a>    Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Dr. Anna Lembke, Addiction Expert ---00:02:25 Disclaimer & Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Headspace ---00:07:00 Dopamine, Happiness & Impulsivity  ---00:15:56 What Is Pleasure?  ---00:18:20 Addiction, Boredom & Passion for Life ---00:24:00 Pain-Pleasure Balance Controls Addiction ---00:29:10 Dopamine Deficits, Anhedonia ---00:30:47 Are All Addictions the Same? ---00:35:38 Boredom & Anxiety Lead to Creativity  ---00:40:35 Finding Your Passion Starts with Boredom & Action Steps  ---00:50:05 How to Break an Addiction ---00:55:25 Relapse, Craving & Triggers ---01:07:40 Can People Get Addicted To “Sobriety”?  ---01:11:45 Are We All Wired for Addiction?  ---01:15:57 Bizarre Addiction ---01:18:14 Recovered Addicts Are Heroes ---01:20:10 Lying, Truth Telling, Guilt & Shame ---01:30:40 Clinical Applications of: Ibogaine, Ayahuasca, Psilocybin & MDMA  ---01:40:20 Social Media Addiction  ---01:51:25 Narcissism  ---01:53:30 Goal Seeking, Success & Surprise ---01:58:10 Reciprocity ---02:01:15 Closing Comments, Resources   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

16 Aug 2021

2 HR 02 MINS

2:02:32

16 Aug 2021


#33

How to Control Your Sense of Pain & Pleasure | Episode 32

This episode I discuss our sense of pain and pleasure: where and how they each arise in our mind and body and various ways to control their intensity. I discuss the science of behavioral tools like acupuncture and hypnosis and directed pressure, including the neural circuits they each activate to modulate our experience of pain or pleasure. I also discuss whole body pain, pain "syndromes" and novel pain relief compounds such as Acetyl-L-Carnitine, SAMe and Agmatine. I discuss neuroplasticity of the pain system and the key role that visual perception plays in pain modulation. Finally, I address the link between dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin, with arousal, pleasure and pain. As always, both basic science and various protocols are described. Note: The description of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was intentionally simplified and does not include mention of dorsal horn spinal relay neurons, etc. For an excellent full text review of this anatomy and circuits for touch sensing, please see: [https://bit.ly/3jH9CPf] (https://bit.ly/3jH9CPf)   Thank you to our sponsors: ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Helix Sleep - <a href= "https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman">https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join the Neural Network - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Links: ---Instagram discussion with Dr. Sean Mackey, MD, PhD - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/p/CMVq0X8Bk1D/">https://www.instagram.com/p/CMVq0X8Bk1D/</a> ---Agmatine study - <a href= "https://bit.ly/3CtTwRn">https://bit.ly/3CtTwRn</a>  ---Mechanistic basis of acupuncture - <a href= "https://bit.ly/2VHi0pz">https://bit.ly/2VHi0pz</a>    Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Skin, Pain, Pleasure  ---00:01:50 Protocol 1: Maximizing Motivation (with Dopamine & Pleasure) ---00:07:12 Sponsors: InsideTracker, Helix Sleep, Athletic Greens ---00:12:04 Pleasure & Pain, & Skin Sensors  ---00:18:13 Sensing Touch with Your Brain: Magnification of Feet, Hands, Lips, Face, Genitals ---00:22:16 Two-Point Discrimination, Dermatomes ---00:28:11 Thoughts & Genes That Make Physical Pain Worse ---00:33:45 Expectations, Anxiety, & Pain Threshold ---00:40:27 Protocol 2: Cold Sensing Is Relative; Getting Into Cold Water ---00:45:22 Protocol 3: Heat Is Absolute ---00:48:10 Injury & Pain ---00:52:04 Protocol 4: Plasticity of Pain: Key Role of Vision  ---00:58:08 Sensing Disparate Body Parts As Merged ---01:01:00 Pain “Syndromes”, Psychogenic Fever, “Psychosomatics” ---01:04:40 Fibromyalgia, Naltrexone, Protocol 5: Acetyl-L-Carnitine  ---01:12:24 Protocol 6: Agmatine, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate* ---01:17:27 Acupuncture: Mechanism, Non-Responders, Itch & Inflammation ---01:28:20 Laser Photobiomodulation, Protocol 7: Hypnosis (reveri.com)  ---01:30:00 Protocol 8: Pressure-Based Pain Relief, “Gate Theory of Pain (Relief)” ---01:37:53 Redheads & Pain Thresholds, Endogenous Opioids  ---01:44:02 Protocol 8: Love & Pain, Dopamine ---01:49:23 Pleasure & Reproduction, Dopamine & Serotonin, Oxytocin ---01:51:40 Protocol 9: PEA, L-Phenylalanine (Precursor to Tyrosine) ---01:55:40 Contextual Control of Pleasure by Autonomic Arousal, Dopamine Baselines ---01:59:40 Pleasure-Pain Balance ---02:01:24 Protocol 10: Controlling Pleasure, Dopamine & Motivation Over Time ---02:06:40 Protocol 11: Immediate, Non-Goal-Directed Pleasure, PAG  ---02:08:40 Direction of Touch: Pleasure Versus Pain, Arousal & Touch “Sensitivity”  ---02:13:00 Synthesis & How to Conceptualize Pain and Pleasure, Support   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com ... Read more

09 Aug 2021

2 HR 15 MINS

2:15:53

09 Aug 2021


#32

Dr. Matthew Walker: The Science & Practice of Perfecting Your Sleep | Episode 31

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Matt Walker, Professor of Neuroscience and Psychology and the Founder & Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also the author of the international best-selling book Why We Sleep and the host of "The Matt Walker Podcast." We discuss the biology of sleep, including its various stages and what specifically happens to those stages when we don't get enough sleep. We also discuss the effects of sunlight, caffeine, alcohol, naps, hormones, exercise, marijuana, sexual activity, and various supplements on sleep. The episode consists of both basic science information and many science-supported actionable tools.    Dr. Matthew Walker: ---Podcast - <a href= "https://www.sleepdiplomat.com/podcast">https://www.sleepdiplomat.com/podcast</a>  ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/sleepdiplomat">https://twitter.com/sleepdiplomat</a> ---Instagram - <a href= "https://instagram.com/drmattwalker">https://instagram.com/drmattwalker</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://www.sleepdiplomat.com/">https://www.sleepdiplomat.com</a>   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - <a href= "https://www.roka.com">https://www.roka.com</a> -- code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Belcampo - <a href= "https://www.belcampo.com/huberman">https://www.belcampo.com/huberman</a> -- code: huberman   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Neural Network - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Matt Walker ---00:02:00 Sponsors: Roka, InsideTracker, Belcampo ---00:06:00 What Is Sleep? ---00:10:20 REM (Rapid Eye Movement) aka 'Paradoxical Sleep' ---00:16:15 Slow Wave Sleep aka 'Deep Sleep' ---00:24:00 Compensating For Lost Sleep ---00:32:20 Waking in the Middle Of The Night  ---00:39:48 Uberman (Not Huberman!) Sleep Schedule ---00:42:48 Viewing Morning SUNLight ---00:49:20 Caffeine ---01:07:54 Alcohol ---01:14:30 Growth Hormone & Testosterone ---01:16:14 Emotions, Mental Health & Longevity ---01:20:40 Books vs. Podcasts ---01:21:20 Lunchtime Alcohol ---01:25:00 Marijuana/CBD  ---01:36:00 Melatonin ---01:54:14 Magnesium ---01:58:10 Valerian, Kiwi, Tart Cherry, Apigenin ---02:15:00 Tryptophan & Serotonin ---02:19:24 Naps & Non-Sleep-Deep-Rest (NSDR) ---02:28:23 Is It Possible To Get Too Much Sleep? ---02:34:35 Sex, Orgasm, Masturbation, Oxytocin, Relationships ---02:47:30 Unconventional Yet Powerful Sleep Tips  ---02:59:10 Connecting to & Learning More from Dr. Walker ---03:04:42 The New Dr. Matt Walker Podcast, Reviews & Support   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

02 Aug 2021

3 HR 06 MINS

3:06:06

02 Aug 2021


#31

How to Optimize Your Brain-Body Function & Health | Episode 30

This episode I describe how the organs of the body influence the function and health of our brain and how our brain controls our bodily organs. The conscious awareness of this brain-body dialogue is called interoception. I describe how two factors- mechanical forces (e.g., pressure, pain, volume, etc.) and chemical factors (e.g., gut acidity, microbiome diversity, etc.) combine to influence our moods, control inflammation, immune system, recovery from injury and more. I explain how specific actions of our lungs, heart, spleen, and diaphragm, control our brain via the vagus nerve and other neural pathways. I describe 11 science-supported protocols for enhancing brain-body health and the logic behind them.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - [https://www.roka.com] (https://www.roka.com) - code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Headspace - <a href= "https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer">https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join the Neural Network - <a style= "font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;" href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Links: ---Sonnenburg, Cell Press Study - <a href= "https://bit.ly/SonnenburgCellPress">https://bit.ly/SonnenburgCellPress</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Your Sense of Self: Interoception ---00:01:25 Protocol 1: Fermented Foods, Not Fiber, to Reduce Inflammation  ---00:03:30 Attributions ---00:08:22 Main Drivers of Feelings & Performance ---00:11:45 Brain-Body: A Mechanical & Chemical Dialogue  ---00:17:50 LDB (Lung-Diaphragm-Brain) Dialogue   ---00:21:00 Protocols 2, 3, 4: Control Heart Rate With Breathing ---00:29:08 Sensing Lung Pressure: Piezo Receptors ---00:30:54 Carbon Dioxide, From Air to Blood ---00:34:02 Protocol 5: Alert While Calm ---00:40:50 Baroreceptors: Hering-Breuer Reflex ---00:42:47 Gut Volume & The Desire to Open Your Mouth  ---00:48:18 Protocol 6: Enhancing Gut-To-Brain Communication, Fasting  ---00:51:50 Intestines, Fatty Acids, Amino Acids & Sugar ---00:57:00 Protocol 7: Reducing Sugar Cravings with Specific Amino Acid Nutrients  ---00:58:58 Gut Acidity (Is Good) ---01:02:20: Improving Nasal Microbiome  ---01:04:13 Inflammation & Microbiome: Fiber vs. Fermented  ---01:11:15 Protocol 8: Reducing Inflammation & Enhancing Brain Function w/Fermented Foods ---01:13:10 Leaking Guts, Auto-Immune function & Glutamine ---01:15:50 Gut Acidity: HCl (hydrochloric acid), Pepsin ---01:18:30 Probiotics & Brain Fog ---01:21:45 Nausea: Happens in Your Brain; Area Postrema ---01:28:25 Protocol 9: Reducing Nausea: Ginger, Peppermint, CBD, etc. ---01:30:40 Fever: Triggers and Control Knobs: OVLT ---01:37:00 Protocol 10: Cooling the Blood Properly ---01:38:53 Sensing Feelings, Vagus Nerve, Stress ---01:41:50 Mental Emotions Reflect Bodily Conditions ---01:45:00 Sensing Other People’s Emotions via the Body ---01:46:00 Protocol 11: Increasing Interoception, Sensing Heartbeat  ---01:50:40 Conclusions & Resources   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a>  ... Read more

26 Jul 2021

1 HR 52 MINS

1:52:29

26 Jul 2021


#30

Dr. Lex Fridman: Machines, Creativity & Love | Episode 29

Dr. Lex Fridman PhD, is a scientist at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), working on robotics, artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicles and human-robot interactions. He is also the host of the Lex Fridman Podcast where he holds conversations with academics, entrepreneurs, athletes and creatives. Here we discuss humans, robots, and the capacity they hold for friendship and love. Dr. Fridman also shares with us his unique dream for a world where robots guide humans to be the best versions of themselves, and his efforts to make that dream a reality.    Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - [https://www.roka.com] (https://www.roka.com) - code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>   Connect with Dr. Lex Fridman: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://instagram.com/lexfridman/">https://instagram.com/lexfridman/</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/lexfridman">https://twitter.com/lexfridman</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman/">https://www.facebook.com/lexfridman/</a>  ---YouTube - <a href= "https://www.youtube.com/lexfridman">https://www.youtube.com/lexfridman</a>  ---Podcast - <a href= "https://lexfridman.com/podcast/">https://lexfridman.com/podcast/</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join the Neural Network - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Links: ---Hedgehog and the Fog - <a href= "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThmaGMgWRlY">https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThmaGMgWRlY</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction: Lex Fridman ---00:07:35 What is Artificial Intelligence? ---00:26:46 Machine & Human Learning ---00:32:21 Curiosity ---00:36:55 Story Telling Robots ---00:40:48 What Defines a Robot? ---00:44:30 Magic & Surprise ---00:47:37 How Robots Change Us ---00:49:35 Relationships Defined ---01:02:29 Lex’s Dream for Humanity ---01:11:33 Improving Social Media ---01:16:57 Challenges of Creativity ---01:21:49 Suits & Dresses  ---01:22:22 Loneliness ---01:30:09 Empathy ---01:35:12 Power Dynamics In Relationships ---01:39:11 Robot Rights  ---01:40:20 Dogs: Homer & Costello ---01:52:41 Friendship ---01:59:47 Russians & Suffering ---02:05:38 Public vs. Private Life ---02:14:04 How To Treat a Robot ---02:17:12 The Value of Friendship ---02:20:33 Martial Arts ---02:31:34 Body-Mind Interactions ---02:33:22 Romantic Love ---02:42:51 The Lex Fridman Podcast ---02:55:54 The Hedgehog ---03:01:17 Concluding Statements   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a> ... Read more

19 Jul 2021

3 HR 03 MINS

3:03:19

19 Jul 2021


#29

Maximizing Productivity, Physical & Mental Health with Daily Tools | Episode 28

In this episode, I discuss science-supported tools for enhancing focus, learning, creativity, sleep, physical strength and endurance and brain and body health. I explain each protocol in detail, the rationale behind it, and how the protocol can be adjusted depending on individual needs. I set these tools in the context of a 24-hour day as a way of framing how one might incorporate these tools and protocols into their own daily routine. Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - [https://www.roka.com] (https://www.roka.com) - code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Headspace - <a href= "https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman">https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman</a> Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a> Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a> Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Neural Network - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a> Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction: Protocols for sleep, mood, focus, exercise creativity ---00:04:08 Sponsors ---00:08:50 Protocol 1: Record Your Daily Waking Time & Temperature Minimum  ---00:12:07 Protocol 2: Self-Generate Forward Motion (Outdoors)  ---00:17:00 Protocol 3: View Natural Light For 10-30min Every Morning ---00:22:43 What To Do If You Can’t View The Sun: Blue Light  ---00:26:50 Protocol 4: Hydrate Correctly  ---00:28:00 Protocol 5: Delay Caffeine 90-120m After Waking ---00:30:48 Protocol 6: Fast (or Fat-Fast) Until Noon ---00:32:30 What Actually Breaks A Fast & What Doesn’t? ---00:34:30 Fat Loss & Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP1), Yerba Mate, Guayusa Tea ---00:37:30 Protocol 7: Optimize Deep Work: Visual Elevation, Ultradian Cycles, White Noise ---00:48:30 Optimal Time of Day To Do Hard Mental Work  ---00:52:07 Protocol 8: Optimal Exercise; 3:2 Ratio ---01:03:54 Tools for Training & Mental Focus: Fasting, Salt, Stimulants, Alpha-GPC  ---01:10:00 Protocol 9: Eat For Brain Function & Mood ---01:17:39 Protocol 10: Get Your Testosterone & Estrogen In An Ideal Range ---01:24:00 Protocol 11: Reset the Mind & Body, Enhance Neuroplasticity, Reveri.com ---01:31:15 Protocol 12: Hydrate Correctly, Nap Rules ---01:33:29 Protocol 13: View Late Afternoon/Evening Light To Support Sleep & Dopamine ---01:39:00 Protocol 14: Eat Dinner That Promotes Serotonin, Calm Sleep ---01:44:27 Protocol 15: Optimize Falling & Staying Asleep; Tools & Supplements That Work ---01:55:00 Protocol 16: Preventing Middle of the Night Waking ---01:59:10 Protocol 17: Weekends, Recovering From A Poor Nights Sleep ---02:05:20 Neural Network, Supplement Sources, Sponsors Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a> ... Read more

12 Jul 2021

2 HR 07 MINS

2:07:01

12 Jul 2021


#28

The Science of Hearing, Balance & Accelerated Learning | Episode 27

This episode I describe how our ears and nervous system decode sound waves and gravity to allow us to hear and make sense of sounds. I also describe protocols for rapid learning of sound and other types of information. I discuss sound localization, doppler effects (sound motion), pitch perception and how we isolate sounds in noisy environments. I also review the scientific findings on binaural beats and white noise and how they can improve learning. Other topics and protocols include tinnitus, sea sickness, ear movement, ear growth and the science-supported ways we can all accelerate learning using "gap effects".   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - [https://www.roka.com] (https://www.roka.com) - code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Headspace - <a href= "https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer">https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Neural Network - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Links: ---Review on spacing effects and learning: <a href= "https://bit.ly/3qM6bto" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">https://bit.ly/3qM6bto</a>  ---Micro-rest and accelerated learning: <a href= "https://bit.ly/3hitXKM" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">https://bit.ly/3hitXKM</a>  ---Ear movement: <a href= "https://bit.ly/2TrS9Bf">https://bit.ly/2TrS9Bf</a>  ---Ears making sounds, hormones: [https://bit.ly/3yneKgV] (https://bit.ly/3yneKgV)   ---Binaural beats: review and references: <a href= "https://bit.ly/36fggFO" target="_blank" rel= "noopener">https://bit.ly/36fggFO</a>    Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Overview of Topics ---00:02:20 Protocol: New Data for Rapid Learning  ---00:09:10 Introduction: Hearing & Balance  ---00:13:53 How We Perceive Sounds ---00:21:56 Your Hearing Brain (Areas)   ---00:23:48 Localizing Sounds ---00:28:00 Ear Movement: What It Means  ---00:33:00 Your Ears (Likely) Make Sounds: Role of Hormones, Sexual Orientation  ---00:35:30 Binaural Beats: Do They Work?  ---00:43:54 White Noise Can Enhance Learning & Dopamine ---00:51:00 Headphones ---00:55:51 White Noise During Development: Possibly Harmful ---01:03:25 Remembering Information, & The Cocktail Party Effect ---01:12:55 How to Learn Information You Hear ---01:18:10 Doppler ---01:22:43 Tinnitus: What Has Been Found To Help? ---01:30:40 Aging: How Big Are Your Ears? ---01:35:00 Balance: Semi-Circular Canals ---01:40:35 A Vestibular Experiment ---01:43:15 Improve Your Sense of Balance ---01:48:55 Accelerating Balance ---01:51:55 Self-Generated Forward Motion ---01:56:25 Dizzy versus Light-Headed ---01:58:38 Motion Sickness Solution ---02:01:23 Synthesis   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. ... Read more

05 Jul 2021

2 HR 03 MINS

2:03:37

05 Jul 2021


#27

Dr. Karl Deisseroth: Understanding & Healing the Mind | Episode 26

Dr. Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, is a Clinical Psychiatrist and scientist who directs a bioengineering research laboratory at Stanford University School of Medicine. His work aims to understand and develop treatments for disorders of the mind such as depression, attention deficit disorders (ADHD & ADD), autism, schizophrenia, anxiety, eating disorders, borderline personality and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We discuss his experience treating his patients and his laboratory’s mission to find and develop cures for mental disease and tools for probing how the brain works.   Dr. Karl Deisseroth: ---Twitter: <a href= "https://twitter.com/KarlDeisseroth">https://twitter.com/KarlDeisseroth</a> ---New book: <a href= "https://amzn.to/3diiKHG">https://amzn.to/3diiKHG</a> ---Lab Website: <a href= "https://web.stanford.edu/group/dlab">https://web.stanford.edu/group/dlab</a> Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - [https://www.roka.com] (https://www.roka.com) - code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a> Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a> Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>  Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Neural Network - <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a> Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction ---00:07:41 Using Language to Understand the Mind ---00:12:19 Blood Tests For Mental Disease ---00:13:38 The Largest Challenges Facing Treatment of Mental Health ---00:20:21 Predicting Depression & Suicide ---00:22:47 Drugs That Work for Brain Illness ---00:27:01 What Would A Cure For the Broken Mind Look Like? ---00:32:23 Channelopsins: Tools For Understanding & Treating the Mind ---00:39:10 Curing Blindness with Channelopsins ---00:41:58 Why Karl Became a Scientist ---00:47:10 Vagus Nerve In Depression ---00:54:12 Challenges To Overcome for Treating Mental Illness with Channelopsins ---00:58:34 Using the Dialogue with Patients to Guide Treatment ---01:00:52 How Our Eyes Reveal Our Mental Health ---01:06:04 Controlling Structures Deep In the Brain ---01:08:23 The Most Effective Drugs Often Have the Most Side Effects ---01:09:50 Do Psychiatrists Take the Drugs They Prescribe ---01:14:15 Moving From Experimental Tools To Novel Treatments ---01:16:00 Brain-Machine Interfaces & Neuralink ---01:19:30 ADHD & Dr. Deissroth’s Approach To Focusing His Mind ---01:26:36 How Dr. Deisseroth Balances A Career In Medicine, Science & Family ---01:35:41 New Ways of Exploring Brains: CLARITY ---01:38:49 What Is Special About the Human Brain? ---01:46:03 Psychedelics ---01:54:12 MDMA ---01:57:15 Dr. Deisseroth’s New Book “Projections: A Story of Emotions” ---01:59:42 Connecting with Dr. Deisseroth on Twitter Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a> ... Read more

28 Jun 2021

2 HR 02 MINS

2:02:06

28 Jun 2021


#26

How Smell, Taste & Pheromone-Like Chemicals Control You | Episode 25

This episode I explain how we sense chemicals by way of smell, taste and pheromones. How things smell and taste and chemicals in the tears, breath, and on the skin of others have a profound effect on how we feel, what we do and our hormones. I explain the 3 types of responses to smell, the 5 types of tastes, the possible existence of sixth taste sense and how the act of sniffing can make us learn and focus better. I explain how smell and taste reflect brain health and can be used to assess and even promote brain regeneration. I discuss how eating specific categories of foods makes us crave more of those foods. Both basic science and protocols are described including how to make sour things taste sweet and how to develop a heightened sense of smell and taste.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - [https://www.roka.com] (https://www.roka.com) - code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website: <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a>   Links: 1--What Is Color? By Arielle & Joann Eckstut <a href= "https://www.amazon.com/What-Color-Questions-Answers-Science/dp/1419734512"> https://www.amazon.com/What-Color-Questions-Answers-Science/dp/1419734512</a> 2--The smell of tears lowers testosterone DOI: 10.1126/science.1198331 3--Inhaling (sniffing) improves non olfactory attention & cognition: <a href= "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31089297/">https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31089297/</a> 4--Smelling Salts & Improved Athletic Performance <a href= "https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28922211/">https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28922211/</a> 5--Taste Receptors Are Expressed By Ovaries & Testes doi:10.1093/molehr/gat009   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction  ---00:06:02 Sensing Chemicals: Smell, Taste & Chemicals That People Make To Control Each Other  ---00:09:10 Vision Protocols Recap (Brief): Near-Far Viewing & 2 hours/day outside, & Correction  ---00:12:20 Color Vision: Excellent Resource: What is Color? (The Book)  ---00:13:54 How We Sense Chemicals: Enter Our Nose, Mouth, Eyes, Skin  ---00:17:28 The Chemicals From Other People’s Tears Lower Testosterone & Libido  ---00:21:16 SMELL: Sniffing, A Piece of Your Brain In Your Nose, 3 Responses To Smells  ---00:24:40 Smells and Memory: Why They Are So Powerfully Associated  ---00:26:40 Pheromone Effects: Spontaneous Miscarriage, Males & Timing Female Puberty  ---00:28:56 Sniffing Creates Alertness & If Done Properly Can Help You Focus & Learn Better  ---00:34:00 Protocol 1: Sniffing (Nothing) 10-15X Enhances Your Ability to Smell & Taste  ---00:35:50 Smelling Salts, Ammonia & Adrenaline   ---00:38:25 How You Can Become A Human Scent Hound, Detecting Cancer, & Tasting Better  ---00:43:45 Smell As A Readout Of Brain Health & Longevity; Regaining Lost Sense Of Smell  ---00:48:30 Dopamine, Sense Of Smell, New Neurons & New Relationships  ---00:50:20 Why Brain Injury Causes Loss Of Smell; Using Smell To Gauge & Speed Recovery   ---00:53:33 Using Smell To Immediately Becoming Physically Stronger  ---00:54:40 Smelling In Our Dreams, Active Sniffing In Sleep, Sniffing As a Sign Of Consciousness  ---00:57:35 Mint Scents Create Alertness By Activating Broad Wake-Up Pathways Of Your Nervous  ---00:59:48 Protocol 2 Pleasant Or Putrid: The Microwave Popcorn Test, Cilantro, Asparagus, Musk  ---01:03:00 Skunks, Costello, All Quiet On The Western Front    ---01:04:32 TASTE: Sweet, Salty, Bitter, Umami, Sour; Your Tongue, Gustatory Nerve, NST, Cortex  ---01:08:45 Energy, Electrolytes, Poisons, Gagging, Amino Acid & Fatty Acid Sensing, Fermentation  ---01:13:48 Our 6th Sense of Taste: FAT Sensing  ---01:15:05 Gut-Brain: Your Mouth As An Extension Of Your Gut; Burned Mouth & Regeneration  ---01:19:30 Protocol 3: Learn To Be A Super-Taster By Top-Down Behavioral Plasticity  ---01:22:20 The Umami-Sweet Distinction: Tigers Versus Pandas. Aggression Versus Passivity  ---01:25:05 Eating More Plants Versus Eating More Meat, Cravings and Desire  ---01:27:15 Food That Makes You Feel Good Or Bad: Taste Receptors On Our Testes Or Ovaries  ---01:30:05 Biological Basis For The Sensuality of Umami and Sweet Foods  ---01:32:28 Appetitive & Aversive Sensing: Touching Certain Surfaces, Tasting Certain Foods  ---01:33:35 Amino Acids Are Key To Life, The Maillard Reaction, Smell-Taste Merge, Food Texture  ---01:39:00 How Processed Food Make You Crave More Processed Foods  ---01:39:44 Protocol 4: Invert Your Sense of Sweet & Sour: Miracle Fruit; Swapping Bitter & Sweet  ---01:43:03 Pheromones, Desire To Continue Mating: Coolidge Effect Occurs In Males & Females  ---01:46:40 Do Women Influence Each Others Menstrual Cycles?   ---01:49:19 Recognizing the Smell Of Your Romantic Partner   ---01:50:30 Differences In Odor Detection Ability, Effects Of Hormones  ---01:53:00 We Rub The Chemicals Of Others On Our Eyes and Skin, Bunting Behavior  ---01:56:40 Summary, Zero-Cost Ways To Support Us, Instagram, New Website, Sponsors, Patreon    Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com ... Read more

21 Jun 2021

1 HR 59 MINS

1:59:41

21 Jun 2021


#25

The Science of Vision, Eye Health & Seeing Better | Episode 24

This episode I describe how we see, meaning how our eyes focus, convert light information into electricity the rest of the brain can understand and how our brain creates the incredible thing we experience as “sight”. I also describe how we can train and support our visual system to improve at any age. I describe more than a dozen protocols to support depth perception, offset near-sightedness, improve mood, sleep, and our ability to focus (both visual focus and our mental focus generally). I also explain how to use eyesight to improve our levels of alertness and why visual hallucinations, lazy eyes and colorblindness occur. I also describe various compounds that may assist in supporting visual health and possibly improve our vision. Many simple, zero-cost protocols and a lot of scientific mechanisms are covered in this episode in clear language anyone can understand-- it is for anyone that values their brain and whether eyesight, young, adult-age or advanced age.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - <a href= "https://www.roka.com">https://www.roka.com</a> - code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Helix Sleep - <a href= "https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman">https://www.helixsleep.com/huberman</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website: <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join the Neural Network: <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Link to eye exercise videos for smooth pursuit, amblyopia, etc. (Numbering of videos does correspond to numbers in episode caption.) <a href= "https://www.youtube.com/c/VisualExercises/videos">https://www.youtube.com/c/VisualExercises/videos</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction ---00:04:51 Protocol: Concurrent Training For Endurance, Strength, Hypertrophy ---00:07:24 The Senses, Vision, Seeing & What We Should All Do To See Better ---00:10:35 Our Eyes: What They Really Do, & How They Work ---00:14:30 Converting Light Into Electricity Language: Photoreceptors, Retinal Ganglion Cells ---00:17:00 We Don’t See Anything Directly: It Is All A Comparison Of Reflected Light ---00:19:35 Dogs, Cats, Snakes, Squirrels, Shrimps, Diving Birds, & You(r View Of The World) ---00:24:05 Everything You See Is A Best Guess, Blind Spots ---00:25:50 Depth Perception ---00:28:00 Subconscious Vision: Light, Mood, Metabolism, Dopamine; Frog’s Skin In Your Eyes ---00:32:00 Blue-Yellow Light, Sunlight; & Protocol 1 For Better Biology & Psychology; ---00:35:00 Protocol 2: Prevent & Offset Near-Sightedness (Myopia): Outdoors 2 Hours Per Day ---00:42:00 Improving Focus: Visual & Mental; Accommodation, Your Pupils & Your Bendy Lens ---00:48:50 Protocol 3: Distance Viewing For 20min For Every 90 Minutes of “Close Viewing” ---00:52:20 Protocol 4: Self-Generated Optic Flow; Move Yourself Through Space Daily ---00:54:26 Protocol 5: Be More Alert; Eyelids, Eye Size, Chin Position, Looking Up Versus Down ---00:59:21 Protocol 6: Sleep In A Very Dark Room To Prevent Myopia (Nearsightedness) ---01:02:55 Color Vision, Colorblindness, Use Magentas Not Reds, ---01:04:32 Protocol 7: Keeping Your Vision Sharp With Distance Viewing Every Day ---01:06:05 Protocol 8: Smooth Pursuit ---01:08:48 Protocol 9: Near-Far Visual Training 2-3 Minutes 3-4 Times a Week ---01:13:33 Protocol 10: Red Light, Emerging Protocol To Improve Photoreceptors & Vision ---01:16:20 Dry Eyes; Blinking, Protocol 11 ---01:18:40 Lazy Eye, Binocular Vision, Amblyopia; Triggering Rapid Brain Plasticity; Protocol 12 ---01:24:48 Protocol 12: Determine Your Dominant Eye; Near-Far Training ---01:27:57 Visual Hallucinations: The Consequence of An Under-Active Visual Brain ---01:29:47 Protocol 13: Snellen Chart: A Simple, Cost-Free Way To Test & Maintain Vision ---01:33:00 Vitamin A, Lutein, Idebenone, Zeaxanthine, Astaxanthin, Blood Flow ---01:44:20 Summary of Protocols, Vital Point About Blood & Oxygen For Vision ---01:46:00 Episode Length, Captions, Zero-Cost Support, Instagram, Searching Topics   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com ... Read more

14 Jun 2021

1 HR 49 MINS

1:49:38

14 Jun 2021


#24

How To Build Endurance In Your Brain & Body | Episode 23

This episode I discuss endurance: our ability to perform effort over extended amounts of time. I describe the four kinds of endurance: muscular endurance, long-duration (single-set) efforts, and the two kinds of high-intensity interval training that can benefit our brain and various systems of our body. I discuss the fuel systems they each rely on and how to build up your capillary beds in muscle, and in the brain to increase oxygen utilization or improve postural endurance. I discuss efficiency of effort and maximizing quality of effort, as well as the simplest hydration formula. I review how our heart literally gets stronger (as a muscle) when we oxygenate muscles properly and ways to warm up with and improve respiration/breathing. I also discuss motivation for long bouts of work and the visual physiological basis of the "extra gear" we all can leverage for effort. Finally, I review how accelerating as we fatigue can allow us to access untapped energetic resources. As always, both science, mechanism and tools are discussed throughout   Thank you to our sponsors: ---ROKA - [https://www.roka.com] (https://www.roka.com) - code: huberman ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman">https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>    Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website: <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join the Neural Network: <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>    Mechanistic review of training adaptations: <a href= "https://bit.ly/3wyejPK">https://bit.ly/3wyejPK</a>  Example Protocols: https://hubermanlab.com/how-to-build-endurance-in-your-brain-and-body/   Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introduction 00:05:45 Why Everyone Should Train Endurance 00:09:49 All Episodes Now Searchable at hubermanlab.com & The Neural Network 00:11:28 How To Maintain Muscle 00:12:56 Endurance: It’s Not What You Think, Crossover With Brain Function 00:14:38 Energy; Many Paths To ATP: Creatine, Glucose, Glycogen, Fat; Ketones 00:18:00 The Vital Need For Oxygen: But Why? 00:19:00 What Allows Us To Endure (Anything)? 00:20:46 The 5 Things That Allow Us To Persist/Endure & What Causes Quitting 00:22:50 Why You Quit: It IS All In Your Mind 00:27:19 The “90% Mental” Myth 00:28:10 The Critical Need For Carbohydrates & Electrolytes (& Sometimes Ketones) 00:30:10 Phospho-Creatine, Glycogen, pH, Temperature Is Key 00:31:36 Using Your Blood, Heart, & Lungs To Go Longer, Further, With More Intensity 00:35:40 An Excellent Review on the Science of Training Adaptations (See Caption On YouTube) 00:37:15 The 4 Kinds of Endurance 00:38:53 Muscular Endurance: Powerful for Everyone: Posture, Performance, Resilience 00:41:50 Protocol For Building Muscular Endurance. No Major Eccentric Component 00:48:40 How to Make Muscles More Resilient: Mitochondrial Respiration, Neuronal Firing 00:51:31 Long Duration Endurance: 12 minutes or More, One “Set”, Efficiency of Movement 00:57:00 Why Everyone Should Train Long Duration Endurance: Capillaries In Muscle & Brain 01:01:00 Two Distinct Types of High-Intensity Interval Training: Anaerobic & Aerobic 01:02:20 Anaerobic HIIT: 3-12 Sets, Work:Rest Ratio of 3:1 or 1:3; Quality of Repetitions is Key 01:07:00 Maximizing Oxygen Utilization, Heart Rate & Nerve-Muscle Energy Utilization 01:10:59 Aerobic HIIT; 1:1 Work:Rest Ratio, Tapping Into All Energy Utilization Systems 01:15:20 Building A Stronger Heart & Better Brain: Eccentric Loading the Heart: Stroke Volume 01:20:10 Resistance & Weight Training: Useless for the Brain? What Is Good For the Brain? 01:23:25 The Strength-Endurance Tradeoff; How Long to Wait Between Workouts 01:25:45 Breathing During Endurance, Explosive and Weight Training: Nose, Mouth, Gears 01:29:50 Intercostals & Diaphragmatic Breathing: Warming Up Intercostals Is Useful 01:31:00 Increasing Motivation & Adrenaline 01:32:10 Eliminating the “Side Cramp” With Physiological Sighs 01:34:45 Accelerating Through “The Wall”: Accessing Alternative Fuel Sources; Ketone Use 01:37:50 Hydration: Why Hydrate, How To Hydrate, & How Much Fluid To Drink 01:41:35 “The Galpin Equation”; Gastric Emptying Time, Adapting Hydration Mid-Training 01:44:20 Boosting Mitochondrial Density With Cold; Wait 6 Hours Before Cold/Between Training 01:46:00 Accelerating Recovery with 5 Minute Parasympathetic Down-Shift After Training 01:48:00 Leveraging The Visual System During Effort, Milestones; Dilation & Contraction; Pacing 01:53:10 The Physiological Basis of Your “Extra Gear”, Accessing Your “Kick”, Steve Prefontaine 01:56:00 Programming Examples; Concurrent Training 01:57:57 Caffeine, Magnesium Malate to Reduce Soreness, Nitric Oxide, Beta-Alanine 02:00:00 Synthesis; Next Episodes, Zero-Cost Ways to Support, Sponsors, Sources   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed.   Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - <a href= "https://www.blabacphoto.com">https://www.blabacphoto.com</a> ... Read more

07 Jun 2021

2 HR 05 MINS

2:05:31

07 Jun 2021


#23

Science & Tools For Muscle Growth, Increasing Strength & Muscular Recovery | Episode 22

In this episode I describe how our brain and nervous system control muscle tissue and how to leverage that for muscle maintenance, growth (hypertrophy) and recovery. I explain how neurons control muscle contractions and limb movements. I explain muscle metabolism and muscle fiber recruitment. I detail protocols for increasing muscular growth and for neuro-muscular recovery. I explain the effects of deliberate cold, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-histamines on training progress. I describe science-supported protocols using certain weight load ranges, total sets per week, training intensity, frequency, and in-between set activities if one's goal is to increase muscle growth, strength or endurance. I review three foundational compounds and nutrients and three optimization compounds and nutrients that have been shown to improve neuro-muscular performance. Finally, I explain how to leverage exercise and weight training to enhance cognitive function.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://insidetracker.com/huberman">https://insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Belcampo - <a href= "https://belcampo.com/huberman">https://belcampo.com/huberman</a> ---Headspace - <a href= "https://headspace.com/specialoffer">https://headspace.com/specialoffer</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Website: <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com">https://hubermanlab.com</a> ---Join the Neural Network: <a href= "https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network">https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction ---00:10:58 Protocol For Fat Loss: (Zero-Cost) PDF Available At: thecoldplunge.com ---00:12:45 Muscle Is A Slave To the Nervous System ---00:16:22 Why We Have A Brain ---00:17:38 Flexors, Extensors, & Mutual Inhibition ---00:20:00 How Muscles Move, Making & Using Muscle Energy: Making ATP ---00:23:29 The “Burn” Is Not Lactic Acid. Lactate: A Buffer (Prevents Acidity), Fuel, & Hormone ---00:26:11 Feeling the Burn For 10% of Workouts Is Good For Brain, Heart, Liver ---00:27:30 Leveraging Lactate To Enhance Brain Function ---00:29:40 Breathing Properly Through “The Burn”— For Sake of Performance & Brain Function ---00:30:47 Neurogenesis (New Neurons) & Exercise: Not Much, In Humans… Which Is Good. ---00:33:39 How To Contract Muscles, Make Them Bigger and/or Stronger: Henneman’s Principle ---00:36:58 A Large Range of Weight (30-80% of One Repetition Maximum) Can Be Used ---00:38:58 What Makes Muscles To Grow? Stress, Tension, & Damage; Myosin Balloons ---00:45:22 Figuring Out Which of Your Muscles Will Grow & Get Stronger Easily (Or Not) ---00:48:11 Getting Stronger Versus Muscle Growth: Distributed Versus Local Effort ---00:50:47 How Much Resistance Should (Most) People Use? (30-80% Range) & Specific Goal ---00:54:25 How Many Sets Per Week To Maintain Or To Grow Muscle & Get Stronger ---00:56:43 10% Of Resistance Training Should Be To “Failure”, the Rest Should End “Near” Failure ---00:58:23 Number of Sets: Inversely Related To the Ability to Generate High Force Contractions ---01:00:09 How Long Should Weight Training Sessions Last ---01:01:35 Training Duration & Volume ---01:03:51 Range of Motion & Speed of Movement; The Key Role of (Upper Motor) Neurons ---01:08:10 Customizing Training; 1-6 Month Experiments; Key Elements Summarized ---01:09:28 Focal Contractions Between Sets To Enhance Hypertrophy, Not Performance ---01:11:26 The Optimal Resistance Training Protocol To Optimize Testosterone Release ---01:16:00 How Quickly To Complete Repetitions; Interset Rest Times & Activities; Pre-Exhaustion ---01:20:43 Tools To Determine If You Have Recovered From Previous Training: Local & Systemic ---01:26:33 Carbon Dioxide Tolerance Test For Assessing Recovery ---01:32:43 The Way To End Every Training Session. How To Breath Between Sets For Performance ---01:34:46 How & When To Use Cold Exposure To Enhance Recovery; When To Avoid Cold ---01:36:37 Antihistamines & Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Can Be Problematic/Prevent Progress ---01:38:42 Foundational Supplements For Recovery: EPA, Vitamin D3, Magnesium Malate ---01:41:08 Ensuring Proper Nerve-Muscle Firing: Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium ---01:45:00 Creatine: Good? How Much? Cognitive Effects. Hormonal Considerations: DHT ---01:50:12 Beta-Alanine, Beet Juice; Note About Arginine & Citrulline & Cold Sores ---01:52:00 Nutrition: Protein Density: Leucine Thresholds; Meal Frequency ---01:55:54 Why Hard Workouts Can Make It Hard To Think/Do Mental Work ---01:57:25 Leveraging Weight Training & Rest Days To Optimize Cognitive Work ---01:58:58 What Time Of Day Is Best To Resistance Train? ---01:59:40 More Information Resources, Subscribing (Zero-Cost) To Support   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com ... Read more

31 May 2021

2 HR 04 MINS

2:04:21

31 May 2021


#22

How to Lose Fat with Science-Based Tools | Episode 21

This episode I describe the science of fat loss, including how fat is mobilized and oxidized (burned) and how to increase fat burning by leveraging the nervous system. Most people don't realize it, but our neurons connect to our fat and release epinephrine/adrenaline to facilitate fat oxidation. I explain how this can be accomplished with non-exercise movements such as fidgeting to burn thousands of calories of fat a day-- a practice is rarely discussed but very well supported by the science literature. I also discuss an optimal fat loss protocol using cold to create shiver, and how specific types and timing of exercise impact fat loss. I discuss if exercising fasted indeed increases fat oxidation-- it turns out the type and duration of exercise really matters. And I discuss the use of caffeine, GLP1 from Mate or guayusa and emerging new prescription compounds for fat loss. The episode includes a lot of tools, links to cost-free resources and explanation of the science underlying each tool for fat loss.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---InsideTracker - <a href= "http://insidetracker.com/huberman">http://insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---ExpressVPN - <a href= "http://expressvpn.com/huberman">http://expressvpn.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "http://athleticgreens.com/huberman">http://athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>   Cold Protocols via The Cold Plunge: ---<a href= "https://thecoldplunge.com/pages/protocols">https://thecoldplunge.com/pages/protocols</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction ---00:06:00 Fat Loss: The Key Role of Neurons ---00:08:44 The First Law of Fat Loss ---00:11:00 Neurons Connect To Fat! (& That Really Matters) ---00:13:38 5 Pillars of Metabolism: Sleep, Essential Fatty Acids, Glutamine, Microbiome, Thyroid ---00:19:20 Mindset Truly Matters: Amazing Examples of Beliefs on Fat Loss ---00:23:08 Our Brain Talks To Our Fat ---00:25:00 The Most Incredible & Dangerous Fat Loss Agent ---00:27:28 Losing Fat Is a Two-Part Process: Mobilization and Oxidation ---00:32:25 The Critical Role of Adrenaline/Epinephrine, But NOT from Adrenal Glands ---00:34:45 Fidgeting & Shivering: A Powerful Science-Supported Method For Fat Loss ---00:41:24 How Fidgeting Works: Promotes Epinephrine Release into Fat. “N-E-A-T” ---00:44:55 Two Ways of Using Shivering To Accelerate Fat Loss ---00:47:30 White, Brown & Beige Fat; & Using Cold-Induced Shiver To Burn Fat ---00:50:25 How To Use Cold Properly To Stimulate Fat Loss: Succinate Release Is Key/Shiver ---00:52:26 Exact Protocols: (1-5X per week); Don’t Adapt! Submerge and Exit “Sets & Reps” 00:56:15 thecoldplunge.com see “protocols” tab Cold-Shiver-Fat-Loss Tool (cost free) ---00:58:03 If Fat-Loss Is Your Goal, Avoid Cold Adaptation: Remember Polar Bear Swimmers ---00:58:17 Irisin: Underwhelming; Succinate Is The Real Deal ---01:00:00 Brown Fat, Why Babies Can’t Shiver and Becoming a Hotter Furnace, Adding Heat ---01:01:55 Ice On Back of The Neck, Cold Underpants: Not A Great Idea For Fat Loss ---01:04:00 A Key Paper For the Aficionados: <a href= "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826518/">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826518/</a> ---01:05:00 Spot Reduction: There May Be Hope After All. Targeting Specific Fat Pads. ---01:09:20 Exercising For Fat Loss: What Is Best? High Intensity, Sprinting, Moderate Intensity? ---01:13:30 Exercising Fasted: Does It Truly Accelerate Fat Loss/Oxidation. ---01:16:30 The 90 Minute Rule: After 90 Minutes, The Fasted Exercisers Start To Burn More Fat ---01:18:15 If High-Intensity Training Is Done First, The Benefits of Fasting Arrive Before 90min. ---01:22:44 Post-Exercise Metabolic Increases: How To Bias This Toward Fat Oxidation ---01:26:05 A Protocol For Exercise-Induced Fat Loss; Adrenalin Is The Effector ---01:28:50 Supplements/Compounds For Fat Loss Part: Caffeine Fidgeting, & Caffeine Adaptation ---01:34:30 Ephedrine, Fenfluramine: Removed From Market Due to Safety Concerns ---01:35:22 GLP1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide 1), Yerba Mate, Guayusa Tea, Semaglutide ---01:40:30 Berberine, Metformin: Glucose/Insulin Reduction, Increase Fat Oxidation: But Caution ---01:41:28 Gardner Lab Results: What You Eat May Not Matter, But Adherence Is Key Tool ---01:43:00 examine.com & Enter “Yerba Mate”: Lowers Heart Rate Even Though Is a Stimulant ---01:44:35 Acetly-L-Carnitine: Facilitates Fat Oxidation ---01:48:00 Summary List of Tools & How Nervous System Controls Fat Loss ---01:51:20 Cost Free & Other Ways To Support Our Podcast, Making Sure We See Feedback   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com ... Read more

24 May 2021

1 HR 53 MINS

1:53:54

24 May 2021


#21

How to Learn Skills Faster | Episode 20

This episode I discuss the science and practice of learning physical skills: what it involves at a biological level, and what to focus on during skill learning at each stage to maximize learning speed and depth. I also describe what to do immediately after a training session (note: this is different than the optimal protocol for cognitive skill training) and as you progress to more advanced levels of performance. I also cover the science of skill-based visualization which does have benefits, but only if done correctly and at the correct times. I discuss auto-replay of skill learning in the brain during sleep and the value of adding in post-training ‘deliberately idle’ sessions. I cover how to immediately improve limb-range-of-motion by leveraging cerebellum function, error generation, optimal repetition numbers for learning and more. As always, scientific mechanism, peer-reviewed studies and science-based protocols are discussed.   Thank you to our sponsors: ---Belcampo - <a href= "https://belcampo.com/huberman">https://belcampo.com/huberman</a> ---InsideTracker - <a href= "https://insidetracker.com/huberman">https://insidetracker.com/huberman</a> ---Athletic Greens - <a href= "https://athleticgreens.com/huberman">https://athleticgreens.com/huberman</a>   Our Patreon page: ---<a href= "https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman">https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman</a>   Supplements from Thorne: ---<a href= "http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman">http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman</a>   Social: ---Instagram - <a href= "https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab">https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Twitter - <a href= "https://twitter.com/hubermanlab">https://twitter.com/hubermanlab</a> ---Facebook - <a href= "https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab">https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab</a>   Timestamps: ---00:00:00 Introduction ---00:06:28 Skill Acquisition: Mental & Physical ---00:08:40 Clarification About Cold, Heat & Caffeine ---00:12:45 Tool: How To Quickly Eliminate the Side-Stitch ‘Cramp’ & BoostHRV Entrainment ---00:16:08 Physical Skills: Open-Loop Versus Closed-Loop ---00:18:50 Three Key Components To Any Skill ---00:21:00 Sources of Control for Movement: 1) CPGs Govern Rhythmic Learned Behavior ---00:23:30 Upper Motor Neurons for Deliberate Movement & Learning ---00:25:00 Lower Motor Neurons Control Action Execution ---00:25:26 What To Focus On While Learning ---00:27:10 The Reality of Skill Learning & the 10,000 Hours Myth ---00:28:30 Repetitions & The Super Mario Effect: Error Signals vs. Error Signals + Punishment ---00:34:00 Learning To Win, Every Time ---00:39:26 Errors Solve the Problem of What Focus On While Trying to Learn Skills ---00:43:00 Why Increasing Baseline Levels of Dopamine Prior To Learning Is Bad ---00:44:40 The Framing Effect (& Protocol Defined) ---00:46:10 A Note & Warning To Coaches ---00:48:30 What To Do Immediately After Your Physical Skill Learning Practice ---00:53:48 Leveraging Uncertainty ---00:56:59 What to Pay Attention To While Striving To Improve ---01:04:45 Protocol Synthesis Part One ---01:07:10 Super-Slow-Motion Learning Training: Only Useful After Some Proficiency Is Attained ---01:11:06 How To Move From Intermediate To Advanced Skill Execution faster: Metronomes ---01:16:44 Increasing Speed Even If It Means More Errors: Training Central Pattern Generators ---01:19:12 Integrated Learning: Leveraging Your Cerebellum (“Mini-Brain”) ---01:22:02 Protocol For Increasing Limb Range of Motion, Immediately ---01:28:30 Visualization/ Mental Rehearsal: How To Do It Correctly ---01:33:50 Results From 15 Minutes Per Day, 5 Days Per Week Visualization (vs. Actual Training) ---01:35:34 Imagining Something Is Very Different Than Actually Experiencing It ---01:37:58 Cadence Training & Learning “Carryover” ---01:39:00 Ingestible Compounds That Support Skill Learning: Motivation, Repetitions, Alpha-GPC ---01:43:39 Summary & Sequencing Tools: Reps, Fails, Idle Time, Sleep, Metronome, Visualization ---01:46:20 Density Training: Comparing Ultradian- & Non-Ultradian Training Sessions ---01:49:24 Cost-Free Ways to Support Us, Sponsors & Alternate Channels, Closing Remarks   Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com ... Read more

17 May 2021

1 HR 52 MINS

1:52:15

17 May 2021