99% Invisible podcast

99% Invisible

Design is everywhere in our lives, perhaps most importantly in the places where we've just stopped noticing. 99% Invisible is a weekly exploration of the process and power of design and architecture. From award winning producer Roman Mars. Learn more at 99percentinvisible.org.

Design is everywhere in our lives, perhaps most importantly in the places where we've just stopped noticing. 99% Invisible is a weekly exploration of the process and power of design and architecture. From award winning producer Roman Mars. Learn more at 99percentinvisible.org.

 

#668

The Power Broker #07: Sec. Pete Buttigieg

NEWS: We've got 99PI Power Broker Breakdown merch! Visit [99pi.org/store] (https://99pi.org/store) . This is the seventh official episode, breaking down the 1974 Pulitzer Prize winning book, The Power Broker by our hero Robert Caro.  This week, Roman and Elliott sit down with Pete Buttigieg, the US Secretary of Transportation. One of his major responsibilities as Secretary is overseeing the implementation of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, which has contributed billions of dollars to infrastructure projects around the country. Secretary Buttigieg was also responsible for several major infrastructure projects when he was mayor of South Bend, Indiana. And he’s talked about the importance of acknowledging and dismantling the racism built into transportation systems around the country — somewhat paraphrasing The Power Broker — and has gotten a lot of pushback for it. On today’s show, Elliott Kalan and Roman Mars will cover the second half of Part 5 and the first section of Part 6 (Chapters 27 through Chapter 32), discussing the major story beats and themes. [The Power Broker #07: Sec. Pete Buttigieg] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42479) Join the discussion on [Discord] (https://discord.gg/99pi) and our [Subreddit] (https://www.reddit.com/r/99percentinvisible/) . ... Read more

17 hrs Ago

2 HR 42 MINS

2:42:47

17 hrs Ago


#667

A River Runs Through Los Angeles

When you hear the word "river," you probably picture a majestic body of water flowing through a natural habitat. Well, the LA River looks nothing like that. Most people who see it probably mistake it for a giant storm drain. It's a deep trapezoidal channel with steep concrete walls, and a flat concrete bottom. Los Angeles was founded around this river. But decades ago it was confined in concrete so that, for better or worse, the city could become the sprawling metropolis that it is today. All these years later the county is still grappling with the consequences of those actions. Reported by Gillian Jacobs, guest hosted by 99PI producer, Vivian Le. [A River Runs Through Los Angeles] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42475) ... Read more

16 Jul 2024

43 MINS

43:36

16 Jul 2024


#666

As Slow As Possible

When you go to a concert, you might try to get there right when the doors open. Or perhaps you take your time and skip the opening act. But generally, you want to be there when the show starts. In February, everyone who went to a concert in Halberstadt, Germany, showed up 23 years late. The performance is of a piece called [ORGAN2/ASLSP] (https://www.aslsp.org/) . ASLSP stands for “as slow as possible,” which is how the composer meant for it to be played, and this particular day would involve a chord change. The last time ORGAN2/ASLSP had a chord change was in 2022, and this new chord will play until the next change, in August, 2026. There is a change the year after that, and the following year, and so on, until the year 2640. The full performance is meant to last 639 years. Reporter Gabe Bullard travels to Germany to witness the chord change and to discover why such a concert is even happening in the first place. [As Slow As Possible] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42446) ... Read more

09 Jul 2024

41 MINS

41:51

09 Jul 2024


#665

The Containment Plan (rebroadcast)

It’s hard to overstate the vastness of the Skid Row neighborhood in Los Angeles. It spans roughly 50 blocks, which is about a fifth of the entire downtown area of Los Angeles. It’s very clear when you’ve entered Skid Row. The sidewalks are mostly occupied by makeshift homes. A dizzying array of tarps and tents stretch out for blocks, improvised living structures sitting side by side. The edge of Skid Row is clearly defined and it wasn’t drawn by accident.  It’s the result of a very specific plan to keep homeless people on one side and development on the other. And, perhaps surprisingly to outsiders: it’s a plan that Skid Row residents and their allies actually designed and fought for. [The Containment Plan] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=21720&post_type=episode) ... Read more

02 Jul 2024

26 MINS

26:01

02 Jul 2024


#664

Backfired: The Vaping Wars

When two Stanford graduate students set out to create a new kind of cigarette that wouldn’t kill them, they didn’t foresee all the obstacles that lay ahead—or the powerful forces their invention would unleash. Nearly 10 years after the launch of the JUUL, Backfired: The Vaping Wars asks: Could e-cigarettes have been the solution to one of the world’s most pressing public health problems—or was this technology doomed to introduce a whole new generation to nicotine, and end up perpetuating an intractable addiction? Backfired is the latest podcast from Prologue Projects, the award-winning team behind Slow Burn, Fiasco, and Think Twice: Michael Jackson. Backfired is a show about the business of unintended consequences—what happens when solving one problem inadvertently leads to a host of new ones? In this tale of opportunity, addiction, and good intentions gone awry, hosts Leon Neyfakh and Arielle Pardes offer a definitive account of Juul Labs’ rise and fall, as well as the ubiquitous illegal vape market that sprouted up in its wake. Through dozens of original interviews, they gain access to the key players who got swept up—sometimes unwittingly—in the firestorm that reshaped the culture of nicotine. [Backfired: The Vaping Wars] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42414) ... Read more

25 Jun 2024

52 MINS

52:55

25 Jun 2024


#663

The Power Broker #06: Mike Schur

This is the sixth official episode, breaking down the 1974 Pulitzer Prize winning book, The Power Broker by our hero Robert Caro.  This week, Roman and Elliott sit down with [Mike Schur] (https://x.com/kentremendous) , who created the critically acclaimed NBC comedy The Good Place, and co-created Parks and Recreation, Brooklyn 99, Rutherford Falls, and Netflix’s upcoming, A Classic Spy. Prior to Parks, Michael spent four years as a writer-producer on the Emmy Award-winning NBC hit The Office. Mike also happens to be a big fan of The Power Broker, and has cited the book as his inspiration behind Parks & Rec. On today’s show, Elliott Kalan and Roman Mars will cover the first part of Part 5 of the book (Chapters 25 through Chapter 26), discussing the major story beats and themes. [The Power Broker #6: Mike Schur] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42387) Join the discussion on [Discord] (https://discord.gg/99pi) and our [Subreddit] (https://www.reddit.com/r/99percentinvisible/) . ... Read more

21 Jun 2024

2 HR 58 MINS

2:58:55

21 Jun 2024


#662

Category 6

After Hurricane Camille caused widespread death and destruction along the US Gulf Coast in 1969, two scientists created the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale as a way to quickly warn the public when dangerous storms were on the way. Today, we’re still using the scale and its system of ranking storms as Categories 1 to 5. But in the 55 years since the scale was created, hurricanes have become more frequent, and they have gotten bigger, faster, more devastating. There's now debate among meteorologists about whether the scale is obsolete, and it may be time for something new. [Category 6] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42384) ... Read more

18 Jun 2024

39 MINS

39:06

18 Jun 2024


#661

The Los Angeles Leaf Blower Wars

The leaf blower is one of the most hated objects in the modern world. They’re loud, they pollute, and… how important is a leafless lawn anyway? In a lot of towns and cities, the gas-powered leaf blower has been banned. In others, there are strict guidelines on where and when they can be used. In Los Angeles, California, the leaf blower has never gone quiet, but the war to ban them has been raging for decades. [The Los Angeles Leaf Blower Wars] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42364&post_type=episode)   ... Read more

11 Jun 2024

35 MINS

35:46

11 Jun 2024


#660

Fact Checking the Supreme Court

For a long time, the Court operated under what was called Legal Formalism. Legal formalism said that the job of any judge or justice was incredibly narrow. It was to basically look at the question of the case in front of them, check that question against any existing laws, and then make a decision. Unlike today, no one was going out of their way to hear what economists or sociologists or historians thought. Judges were just sticking to law books. The rationale for this way of judging was that if you always and only look at clean, dry law the decisions would be completely objective. In the late 19th, early 20th century a movement rose up to challenge legal formalism. They called themselves the legal realists. Fred Schauer, professor of law at University of Virginia, says the Realists felt that the justices weren’t actually as objective as they said they were. "Supreme Court justices were often making decisions based on their own political views, their own economic views, and would disguise it in the language of precedence or earlier decisions," says Schauer. The realists said lets just accept that reality and wanted to arm the judges with more information so those judges could make more informed decisions.For a long time the debate between realists and formalists had been mostly theoretical. That is until the arrival of the Brandeis Brief. The Brandeis brief came during a pivotal court case in the early 20th century. And the man at the center of that case was a legal realist and progressive reformer named Louis Brandeis. [Fact Checking the Supreme Court] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42347&post_type=episode)   ... Read more

04 Jun 2024

44 MINS

44:13

04 Jun 2024


#659

Uptown Squirrel [update]

In late 2018, two hundred people gathered at The Explorer’s Club in New York City. The building was once a clubhouse for famed naturalists and explorers. Now it’s an archive of ephemera and rarities from pioneering expeditions around the globe. But this latest gathering was held to celebrate the first biological census of its kind –an effort to count all of the squirrels in New York City’s Central Park. Squirrels were purposefully introduced into our cities in the 1800s, and when their population exploded, we lost track of how many there are. 2024 update: We have a number! [Uptown Squirrel] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?post_type=episode&p=28692) ... Read more

28 May 2024

30 MINS

30:26

28 May 2024


#658

The Lost Subways of North America

Los Angeles actually used to have a massive electric railway system in the early 1900s, called the Red Car. Jake Berman, the author of [The Lost Subways of North America] (https://www.lostsubways.com/) , tells us about how, time after time, when North American cities seemed just inches away from having a robust, utopian future of fast, reliable, and convenient public transportation systems, something gets in the way. That thing is sometimes dysfunctional local politics, sometimes it’s bureaucracy. Sometimes it’s the way our infrastructure favors cars over mass transit, and too often, it’s racism. [583- The Lost Subways of North America] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42309&post_type=episode) ... Read more

22 May 2024

26 MINS

26:26

22 May 2024


#657

The Power Broker #05: Brandy Zadrozny

This is the fifth official episode, breaking down the 1974 Pulitzer Prize winning book, The Power Broker by our hero Robert Caro.  This week, Roman and Elliott also sit down with Brandy Zadrozny, a senior reporter for NBC News who covers misinformation, conspiracy theories, and the internet. Brandy [recently finished] (https://twitter.com/BrandyZadrozny/status/1777823831438024798) The Power Broker, and she’s got a great perspective on what the book says about the press and its relationship to power, what has changed in journalism, and what has remained the same. On today’s show, Elliott Kalan and Roman Mars will cover the last section of Part 4 of the book (Chapters 21 through Chapter 24), discussing the major story beats and themes. [The Power Broker #5: Brandy Zadrozny] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?post_type=episode&p=42315) Join the discussion on [Discord] (https://discord.gg/99pi) and our [Subreddit] (https://www.reddit.com/r/99percentinvisible/) . ... Read more

18 May 2024

2 HR 11 MINS

2:11:53

18 May 2024


#656

Rocket Man

In the twentieth century, the jetpack became synonymous with the idea of a ‘futuristic society.’ Appearing in cartoons and magazines, it felt like a matter of time before people could ride a jetpack to work. But jetpacks never became a mainstream technology, leaving many to wonder... why did they fall off the radar?  [582- Rocket Man] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42295&post_type=episode) ... Read more

14 May 2024

40 MINS

40:20

14 May 2024


#655

It's Howdy Doody Time!

The Howdy Doody Show is one of those pieces of 1950s ephemera that has come to symbolize mid-century American childhood. For over a decade, every weeknight at 5pm, kids all across the country would sit down in front of their parents’ tiny televisions and take in the wild west adventures of Buffalo Bob and his puppet sidekick Howdy Doody. The show was disproportionately important in the history of television. It was the first television program to reach 1,000 episodes, one of the first shows to broadcast in color, and it pioneered new ways of marketing products to children. But in the early days of the medium, especially when Howdy Doody first started, the world of television was strange. In many ways, the story of Howdy Doody is the story of the weird, wild-west days of early TV. A story in which programmers, advertisers, artists and money men were inventing everything as they went along. Starting with what to put on television in the first place. [581- It's Howdy Doody Time!] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?post_type=episode&p=42275) ... Read more

07 May 2024

37 MINS

37:16

07 May 2024


#654

BONUS- Towers of Silence: Vulture Conservation

Recently we published an episode called [Towers of Silence] (https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/towers-of-silence/) . It's about how the Parsis in India are grappling with the loss of vultures and how it changed something very intimate and meaningful for the community. It was reported by our own Lasha Madan and it is epic and it is beautiful. So first of all, go listen to that story if you haven't heard it. It's so good.  On the one hand, it's a very specific story, it's about a unique set of circumstances that happened to a very specific community. But it also feels universally relevant. Because it's a story about death and how we choose to transition out of this world. It's about how we might react when there’s a major cultural shift that we cannot control. And importantly it is about a keystone species collapse, which is something we are on track to see more of in these times. Lasha Madan collected a ton of information about vulture conservation in their reporting but it didn't quite fit into the original story that we wanted to tell but it's so vital and interesting that we're releasing this bonus episode to cover it all. ... Read more

03 May 2024

32 MINS

32:18

03 May 2024


#653

Mr. Yuk

Mr. Yuk is a neon green circular sticker with a cartoon face on it. His face is scrunched up with his eyes squeezed tight and his tongue is sticking out of its mouth. It's the face you make when you taste something disgusting. He's the pictorial embodiment of the sentiment of yuck. Aptly enough: he was designed to be the symbol for hazardous substances, aimed at deterring children from ingesting them. The idea what that if you saw a Mr. Yuk sticker on something around the house, it meant that that something was poison. Friend of the show, Gillian Jacobs, is a BIG FAN of Mr Yuk, who turns out to be a hometown hero of her beloved Pittsburgh, and talked Roman through the origins of the mean, green face that was meant to save children from their worst impulses. Plus, we revisit another story about warning symbols from our archive: the quest to find a symbol that would warn future humans of dangerous radiation 10,000 years in the future. [Mr Yuk] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42242&post_type=episode) ... Read more

30 Apr 2024

56 MINS

56:15

30 Apr 2024


#652

Towers of Silence

Situated right in downtown Mumbai, India is an area of about 55 acres of dense, overgrown forest. In one of the most populous cities in the world, this is a place where peacocks roam freely -- a space out of time. This forest is protected by a religious community. It has survived in a relatively undeveloped state in the middle of this gargantuan city. Importantly, it’s also home to an ancient tradition in crisis -- one that is central to the lives (and deaths) of a particular population. There’s a certain point in this forest beyond which almost no one can step -- only special caretakers of these grounds can go any further. They go by many names: khandia, nassassalar, pallbearer, corpse bearer. Their work here is holy. They carry dead bodies to their final resting place – atop stone structures that stand gray against the lush green. These buildings are called Towers of Silence. [Towers of Silence] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42200&post_type=episode) ... Read more

23 Apr 2024

1 HR 11 MINS

1:11:25

23 Apr 2024


#651

The Power Broker #04: Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez

This is the fourth official episode, breaking down the 1974 Pulitzer Prize winning book, The Power Broker by our hero Robert Caro.  Roman and Elliott also sit down with Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, the U.S. representative for New York's 14th congressional district, who describes the lasting impact Moses’ highways have made on her district, and her own philosophy when it comes to political power and bringing ambitious projects to life. On today’s show, Elliott Kalan and Roman Mars will cover the second section of Part 4 of the book (Chapters 16 through the end of Chapter 20), discussing the major story beats and themes. [The Power Broker #4: Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42166&post_type=episode) Join the discussion on [Discord] (https://discord.gg/99pi) and our [Subreddit] (https://www.reddit.com/r/99percentinvisible/) . ... Read more

19 Apr 2024

2 HR 39 MINS

2:39:33

19 Apr 2024


#650

Anything's Pastable: Eat Sauté Love

This week we're featuring an episode from The Sporkful's series on the creation of "Anything's Pastable," Dan Pashman's new pasta cookbook. Dan talks with Roman about how this massive project came to be and all the design decisions required to put together a cookbook. And then, in part two of “Anything’s Pastable,” Dan embarks on an epic trip across Italy in search of lesser-known pasta dishes — and to learn about the evolution of pasta more broadly. He starts in Rome, where food writer [Katie Parla] (https://katieparla.com/) reveals a shocking truth about pasta. Then an [Italian food historian] (https://www.simonandschuster.com/books/The-Discovery-of-Pasta/Luca-Cesari/9781639363162) challenges Dan’s thinking about carbonara. Finally, he heads south to meet a chef who was there when a regional specialty called spaghetti all’assassina (“assassin’s spaghetti”) was invented. All of this leads Dan to wonder: What does evolution look like in a food culture that’s so often depicted in sepia tones? And what’s his place in that process? [Preorder Dan’s cookbook today] (https://www.sporkful.com/anythings-pastable/) (including signed copies), and see if he’s visiting a city near you on his [tour of book signings and live podcast tapings] (https://www.sporkful.com/tour/) with special guests! [Follow Dan on Instagram] (https://www.instagram.com/thesporkful) to see photos and videos from the Anything’s Pastable journey. [Anything's Pastable: Eat Sauté Love] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42160&post_type=episode) ... Read more

16 Apr 2024

44 MINS

44:43

16 Apr 2024


#649

The Society of Ambiance Makers and Elegant Persons

Hailing from central African cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa, sapeurs have become increasingly recognizable around the world. Since the 1970s, sapeurs (from: le sape, short for "Société des Ambianceurs et des Personnes Élégantes") have been known for donning technicolored three-piece suits with flamboyant accessories like golden walking sticks and leopard-print fedoras, and then cat-walking through their city streets. In recent years, Solange, Kendrick and SZA have all featured sapeurs in their music videos. The iconic British menswear designer Paul Smith did a whole spring line of sapeur-inspired suits and bowler hats. [The Society of Ambiance Makers and Elegant Persons] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42121&post_type=episode) ... Read more

09 Apr 2024

35 MINS

35:18

09 Apr 2024


#648

Chambre de Bonne

A chambre de bonne is usually one small room, on the top floor of a five- or six-story apartment building, and it’s usually just big enough to fit a bed and a table. It’s affordable housing in a city where finding housing is nearly impossible. Reporter [Jeanne Boëzec] (https://jeanneboezec.com/en) tells about the history of the chambre de bonne apartments, and how while cute, they are also cramped and can be unpleasant spaces for people who have to live there, a living embodiment of the gap between the rich in Paris and everyone else. [Chambre de Bonne] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42085&post_type=episode) ... Read more

02 Apr 2024

33 MINS

33:22

02 Apr 2024


#647

Roman Mars Describes Athens GA As It Is

This is the third and final episode in a three-part series of Roman Mars recording on-location guides to the design features and interesting spots in cities he loves.  Roman moved to Athens, Georgia, to pursue a PhD in plant genetics, but dropped out and got into the local music and art scene instead, and started making his way toward radio. [Roman Mars Describes Athens GA As It Is] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42013) Note: This series is made possible by the all-new 2024 Lexus GX and SiriusXM.  ... Read more

29 Mar 2024

36 MINS

36:50

29 Mar 2024


#646

Autism Pleasantville

A few years back, journalist [Lauren Ober] (https://www.oberandout.com/bio) was diagnosed with autism. She then made a podcast about her experience called [The Loudest Girl in the World] (https://www.pushkin.fm/podcasts/loudest-girl-in-the-world) . And she found herself imagining a fantasy world where everything is tailored to Lauren’s very specific autistic needs. And she called this magical imagined place, wonderfully devoid of overwhelming stimuli "Autism Pleasantville." "Obviously," Ober notes, "there’s not a one-size fits all diagnosis or even definition of autism ... as the autism adage goes: 'If you know one autistic person…you know one autistic person.' But despite our wide variety of needs, I wanted to know how design is evolving to better accommodate us" -- how were ideals being handled in the real world. [Autism Pleasantville] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=42052&post_type=episode)   ... Read more

27 Mar 2024

32 MINS

32:46

27 Mar 2024


#645

The Monster Under the Sink

In the middle of the 20th century, the small town of Jasper, Indiana did something that no other city had done before: they made garbage illegal. The city would still collect some things, like soup cans and plastics, but yucky junk, like food waste, wouldn't get picked up. This change was made possible by a new appliance: the garbage disposer – that little grinding machine at the bottom of a lot of kitchen sinks. [The Monster Under the Sink] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?post_type=episode&p=41981) ... Read more

19 Mar 2024

27 MINS

27:05

19 Mar 2024


#644

The Power Broker #03: David Sims

This is the third official episode, breaking down the 1974 Pulitzer Prize winning book, The Power Broker by our hero Robert Caro.  [Blank Check] (https://www.blankcheckpod.com/podcast) podcast co-host and [The Atlantic] (https://www.theatlantic.com/author/david-sims/) movie critic David Sims is our book club guest. On today’s show, Elliott Kalan, Roman Mars, and David Sims will cover the first section of Part 4 of the book (Chapters 11 through the end of Chapter 15), discussing the major story beats and themes. [The Power Broker #3: David Sims] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=41967) Join the discussion on [Discord] (https://discord.gg/99pi) and our [Subreddit] (https://www.reddit.com/r/99percentinvisible/) . ... Read more

15 Mar 2024

2 HR 07 MINS

2:07:00

15 Mar 2024


#643

Toyetic

This year marks the 40th anniversary of a lot of landmarks in pop culture, especially sci-fi and fantasy. So many franchises were born in 1984. Some came to define the genre or invent new genres. The great podcast [Imaginary Worlds] (https://www.imaginaryworldspodcast.org/) noticed this and produced a three-part series about 1984's Cambrian explosion of creativity that  landed on the big screen, the small screen, bookstore shelves and, of course, the toy store. In this episode we learn about at two iconic franchises that launched in 1984: Transformers and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. They came from opposite ends of the business spectrum. Transformers was a top-down marketing synergy between American and Japanese toy companies along with Marvel Comics to compete against He-Man -- another TV toy behemoth. Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle would eventually rival them in cultural dominance, but it began with two indie comic book creators making a black and white comic as a lark. But Turtles and Transformers both ended up wrestling with similar questions around what happens when you put the cart before the horse in creating content to sell products. [Toyetic] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=41951&post_type=episode) ... Read more

13 Mar 2024

39 MINS

39:12

13 Mar 2024


#642

WARNING: This Podcast Contains Chemicals Known to the State of California to Cause Cancer or Other R...

Intimidating Proposition 65 warnings can be found on all kinds of products manufactured or distributed in the State of California. They can seem rather terrifying at first, but within the state, they are ubiquitous, on everyday objects from power tools to potato chips, dietary supplements, leather jackets, gas pumps, coffee tables, the list goes on. All of which raises the question: if these labels are on so many things, are they actually useful in warning us of real dangers? [572- WARNING: This Podcast Contains Chemicals Known to the State of California to Cause Cancer or Other Reproductive Harm] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=41899&post_type=episode) ... Read more

05 Mar 2024

42 MINS

42:39

05 Mar 2024


#641

Roman Mars Describes Santa Fe As It Is

Roman Mars is on a mission to describe the cities that shaped who he is and how he thinks about design. Next up, Santa Fe.  Santa Fe wasn’t always on the proverbial map — in fact, the Santa Fe railroad just passed it on by. A lot of care has been taken to keep Santa Fe cute and quaint over its history, with steps to preserve native architecture and historical design. The result is a mixture of structures old and new, but mostly made to look old, for better or worse. [Roman Mars Describes Santa Fe As It Is] (https://99percentinvisible.org/?p=41790&post_type=episode) Note: This series is made possible by the all-new 2024 Lexus GX and SiriusXM.  ... Read more

02 Mar 2024

33 MINS

33:21

02 Mar 2024